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The aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenic role of obesity on blinding eye diseases in a population of severely obese patients with no history of eye diseases, and to verify whether weight loss induced by bariatric surgery may have a protective effect.
Being overweight or obese has been associated with insulin resistance contributing to an increased risk for the development of type II diabetes. Food intake, metabolic rate, and blood glucose levels are regulated by the autonomic nervous system, including the vagus nerve. This study evaluates the hypothesis that non-invasive transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) affects hormones that regulate food intake and blood glucose levels in a way that is consistent with reduced food intake and lower blood glucose levels. The investigators further hypothesize that these effects of taVNS depend on body weight. In a cross-over design generally healthy study participants will receive either taVNS or a sham intervention for 30 minutes on two separate study days. The order of the intervention on the two study days will be randomized and the two study days are at least one week apart. Based on body mass index (BMI) study participants are assigned to either a normal weight (BMI<25), overweight (BMI<30), or obese (BMI>30) group. Capillary blood samples taken by finger prick before and after the intervention on each study day will be analyzed for blood glucose concentration and hormones that are linked to food intake and blood glucose levels. In addition, autonomic function will be assessed by heart rate variability analysis of ECG recordings obtained before, during, and after the intervention on each study day.
It is projected that by 2030 almost 50% of adults in the USA will have obesity. High sedentariness and physical inactivity contribute to the obesity pandemic. Neurocognitive deficits compound the global burden of obesity. Specifically, adults with obesity underperform on tasks of executive functioning, which underpin goal-directed behavior and have been linked to occupational success. Growing evidence suggests poorer executive functioning among more sedentary adults. Emergent studies have shown that accumulating sedentary time in prolonged bouts (e.g., remaining sedentary continuously 20 min or more) may decrease the ability to control distractions along with working memory. Interrupting prolonged sitting with brief bouts of physical activity is an effective strategy to improve postprandial glucose metabolism. However, the effects of this simple intervention on neural processes supporting executive functioning remain unknown. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to test the effects of interrupting prolonged sitting with frequent (every 30 min) but brief (3 min) physical activity bouts on inhibitory control, working memory, and their neuroelectric indices (N2, P3a, and P3b components of event-related brain potentials). Our secondary aim is to explore the potential mechanisms underlying the effects of interrupting prolonged sitting with physical activity on cognitive and brain function through glucose metabolism and insulin physiology. Findings from this study will help advance our understanding of how restructuring sedentary time may help improve cognitive and brain functions among adults with obesity.
This prospective observational trial includes women with high risk pregnancies complicated with hyperglycemia in pregnancy and excessive body weight. The participants are enrolled when pregnant and monitored throughout pregnancy and delivery until the offspring is 6 months old. This research addresses the question which risk factors for non-communicable disorders such as hypertension, obesity, type 2 diabetes for a woman and her offspring can be detected during pregnancy and in early childhood.
This study will compare metabolic and feeding behaviour responses to 4 days of extended evening fasting vs. a control trial
The aim of this study is to develop a clinical decision support system (CDSS) that incorporates obesity management guidelines and treatment options for use by physicians and, potentially, patients based on a cardiometabolic disease staging system. This CDSS will be designed using primary care provider input through a qualitative approach to explore physician preferences for the appearance, electronic location, treatment options, referrals, accessibility and other user requirements of the CDSS.
Mobile obesity interventions have the potential to reach a diverse population in need; however, while effective, have not resulted in weight losses obtained in in-person interventions. Newer digital approaches called Just-in-Time Adaptive Interventions (JITAI) that offer adaptive, personalized feedback 'when needed' and in 'real time' offer an opportunity to use digital health tools "just in time". This study seeks to identify the optimal components of a comprehensive weight loss JITAI that results in weight losses that meet or exceed those in existing remotely delivered interventions.
Obesity is one of the major health problems worldwide. The consumption of healthy-dietary patterns can be difficult in some countries due to the availability of certain foods. Suggestion of alternative foods could be a necessity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary pattern consisting of fruit, avocado, whole-grains and trout (FAWGT) on postprandial gene expression, insulinemia and lipemia in Colombian obese people.
In animals it has been demonstrated that Saccharomyces boulardii decrease low-grade inflammation and fat mass; also Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) decrease low-grade inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to assess the effect of a 60-days S. boulardii and SOD supplementation on circulating markers of inflammation, body composition, hunger sensation, pro/antioxidant ratio, hormonal, lipid profile, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR, in obese adults (BMI 30-35 kg/m2).
Evira is a digital support system newly developed for treatment of childhood obesity. Through daily weighings at home using a special scale together with a message function in the Evira application, enabling fast and easy communication with the clinic, parents and the clinicians can easily follow the child's weight development. The purpose of this randomized controlled study is to evaluate the effect of adding Evira to the already locally used life-style treatment of childhood obesity.