Although there are many definitions of clinical trials, they are generally considered to be biomedical or health-related research studies in human beings that follow a pre-defined protocol. We have both interventional & observational types of clinical trials found on this site.
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can have unwanted facial or male-patterned body hair, irregular menstrual periods, or no menstrual periods excess body weight, and infertility. It also results in elevated androgen levels such as testosterone. In women with PCOS, the majority of excess androgens are produced by the ovaries. However, it is unknown whether the ovaries are fully active during early puberty. The purpose of this study is to determine how the ovaries contribute to the production of male hormones in the body during different stages of puberty, so that it can be better understood why some females have excess androgens.
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) often have irregular menstrual periods, too much facial and body hair, and weight gain. Women with PCOS also have a hard time becoming pregnant. Girls with high levels of the male hormone testosterone often develop PCOS as adults. Some girls with high levels of male hormone will develop normal hormone levels as they grow up, but most girls continue to have high levels of male hormone as adults. The purpose of this study is to understand where the male and female hormones come from in girls as they get older. The investigators think the adrenal gland, makes most of the hormones in young girls and that the ovary and the adrenal gland make these hormones in older girls. The investigators would like to find out whether an overactive adrenal gland makes these hormones higher in girls who are overweight, compared to those who are not overweight.
This study aims to determine how different ways of performing prostate cancer surgery affect
patient outcomes, such as recurrence of cancer or regaining control of bladder function
(continence) after surgery. Surgery to remove the prostate is known as a "radical
prostatectomy". Surgeons know many things about the best way to do a radical prostatectomy.
However, there is uncertainty about some methods of surgery.
All of the surgeons who are taking part in this study have used these techniques at different times. However, they are unsure as to what is the best approach. This trial will evaluate whether the following two aspects of surgical technique influence outcome:
Lymph node template. Prostate cancer can sometimes spread to the lymph nodes near the prostate. Surgeons often remove these lymph nodes to make sure that no cancer is left in the body. However, there is uncertainty about which lymph nodes to remove (the "template"). In particular, not all surgeons think that it is important to remove a large number of lymph nodes. Some believe that prostate cancer found in the lymph nodes is not aggressive. As a result, these surgeons feel that removing additional lymph nodes does not improve the chance that a patient will be cured. In the study patients will either have the standard lymph node dissection or a modified approach.
Port site incision. Some surgeries are conducted with the help of what is called a surgical "robot", or using a laparoscopic approach (sometimes known as "keyhole" surgery). The surgeons have to make small cuts ("incisions") in order to insert their surgical instruments. Some surgeons believe that the way in which this cut is made can affect the chance that a patient will develop a hernia in the months after surgery. This is when tissues in the abdomen protrude through the incision, creating a small bulge that has to be surgically corrected. In the study, patients will either have the incision made vertically or horizontally.
Antibiotics. About a week after surgery, you will return to the hospital to have your catheter removed. To guard against the chance of infection, you will be given antibiotics. These do help prevent infection, but are also harmful. Doctors are unsure whether to give a short course of antibiotics or whether patients really need several days of treatment. In the study, patients will receive antibiotics for either one or three days.