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The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of a low energy, high protein tube feeding formula on body weight in tube fed patients who are obese. It will also assess study formula tolerance as well as impact of the study formula on lean body mass, blood pressure, blood sugar and lipids.
Background: Morbid obesity is associated with decreased brain µ-opioid receptor availability, possibly resulting in higher food intake needed to gain pleasure from eating. This decrease seems to normalize already 6 months after bariatric surgery, but the longer-term effects have not been studied. Obesity and insulin resistance result in significantly increased brain insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, whereas in every other tissue glucose uptake is lower. One possible explanation to this could be central inflammation and activation of brain glial cells, which has been shown to occur in animal models of obesity. Obesity has also been shown to associate with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and cognitive decline in several studies. Aims: The first objective of this study is to both study the effects of bariatric surgery as well as compare the effects of gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy on food-associated pleasure, extending the follow-up period to 2 years postoperatively. The second aim is to investigate the effect of morbid obesity and weight loss on brain inflammation and gliosis and its association with increased brain insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Furthermore, association of obesity, insulin resistance, central inflammation and neurocognitive dysfunction are evaluated.
Due to reports of a severely reduced insulinotropic effect of the incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in type 2 diabetes (T2D), GIP has not been considered therapeutically viable in T2D. Recently, however, tirzepatide, a novel dual incretin receptor agonist (activating both the GIP receptor and the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor) demonstrated massive improvements in glycaemic control and robust body weight losses; greater than observed with the GLP-1 receptor agonist semaglutide. However, the contribution of GIP receptor activation to these effects remains unknown. The present study will evaluate the glucose-lowering effect of GIP in the context of pharmacological GLP-1 receptor activation in patients with T2D.
The central hypothesis is that, while both groups will benefit from the exercise session, participants with obesity will exhibit greater gains in cognitive control, relative to healthy weight adults. Additionally, we anticipate that the benefits of the single bout of exercise for cognitive control will be mediated by changes in exercise-induced myokines. These hypotheses will be tested by accomplishing three aims: Aim 1: Elucidate the changes in cognitive control following an acute bout of exercise, relative to a sedentary condition, in persons with and without obesity. Aim 2: To examine the effect of a single bout of exercise, relative to a sedentary condition, on myokines known to have neuroprotective effects i.e., BDNF and CTSB in both healthy weight and individuals with obesity. Aim 3: To link changes in exercise-induced myokines (i.e., BDNF and CTSB) to changes in cognitive function, following a single bout of exercise.
High body fat at midlife, as evidenced by overweight or obese body mass index (BMI), is increasingly understood as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. However, the underlying processes and mechanisms that may underlie this risk remains unknown. With this project, the Investigator proposes to create a new cohort of cognitively normal 120 midlife individuals, age 40-60 years. The investigator and research staff will characterize the participant's overweight or obese status using metabolic tests including, an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting plasma insulin, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c measurements. This testing will generate categories of metabolically abnormal overweight and obese (MAOO), metabolically normal overweight and obese (MNOO), and metabolically normal lean participants (MNLP). Research staff will evaluate differences between these groups on neuroimaging with the newer classification framework of Alzheimer's biomarkers with amyloid (A), tau (T), and neurodegeneration (N), or ATN. Neurodegeneration will be assessed by atrophy on brain MRI as reflected by regional volumes on Freesurfer. Staff will also evaluate MR neuroimaging markers for neuroinflammation using a newer method called diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI), developed at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology at Washington University in St. Louis in collaboration with The Charles F. and Joanne Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (Knight ADRC).
The study will determine the weight status in primary school children in the Rhein-Neckar Region in Germany and will analyse the development of height and weight in these children during the time of COVID-19 related restrictions by asking parents to provide data from childhood examinations. Additionally, interactions between cognitive abilities and weight-status will be studied.
In order to investigate how gut microbiota interventions are able to change gut microbiota population and impact insulin resistance, 30 type2 diabetes volunteers with obesity will be randomized to one of the three treatment groups: 1) probiotics arm, who will take a Lactobacillus fermentum D3 in pills daily; 2) FMT arm, who will take a lyophilized fecal microbiota transplant in pills; and 3) control group, who will take placebo pills. After 3 months, insulin resistance, glucose metabolism parameters, and gut microbiota variation will be assessed.
The objective of this exploratory/developmental study is to investigate the episodic nature of food insecurity as a stressor via responses in body weight and psychological and physiological parameters longitudinally. Sixty African American women with obesity will be enrolled. Pennington Biomedical Research Center will coordinate this longitudinal study and measure 1) daily body weight remotely over 22 weeks and 2) psychological and physiological parameters via clinic assessments at the beginning and end of 22 weeks as well as assess episodes of food insecurity and stress on a weekly basis.
This study is an 8 week weight loss intervention with 3 randomly assigned groups: DIET, cold exposure (CE), and DIET+CE. The study will be a total of 13 weeks. All participants will undergo a screening session, two experimental sessions at baseline and two experimental sessions after the intervention. There will be a control (ambient) experimental session and a cold exposure experimental session These will be done in a randomized order both before and after the intervention. Therefore, a total of 5 lab visits will be required for all participants regardless of group outside of their assigned group intervention. Participants in the CE and DIET+CE groups will report to the laboratory every 2nd day for the 8 week intervention to undergo cold exposure as outlined below. The DIET and DIET+CE groups will have a weekly nutritional consultation at the lab as well as a weekly check-in with the nutritionist via text, phone, or email. Participants will be randomly assigned a group after completing the screening session and prior to the experimental session.
The DUNDRUM Forensic Redevelopment Evaluation study (D-FOREST study) is a multi-site comprehensive evaluation of a complete National Forensic Mental Health Service. The study will have a prospective, observational, longitudinal design which will permit the evaluation of benefit over time for individual patients, groups of patients and the evaluation of the benefit in terms of service based outcomes of the redevelopment of a complete National Forensic Mental Health Service e.g. effects on waiting list times, length of stay. The study will systematically evaluate multiple domains of recovery in a complete National Forensic Service, including patients' physical health, mental health, offending behaviours and social and occupational functioning.