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Obesity is a condition of chronic low-grade inflammation, thought to be secondary to adipose tissue secretion of cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α) which effect multiple pathways and lead to an increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation. Chronic inflammation is thought to be a major risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Inflammatory cytokines have also been shown to directly and indirectly interact with the central nervous system influencing behavior and neural activity. Obesity is an independent risk factor for reduced cognitive function including poor attention, executive function and memory. Demonstrating improvement in dynamic visual processing following bariatric surgery could expand our understanding of the impact of obesity on central nervous system (CNS) function.
This is a randomized clinical trial that will randomize bariatric patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass to receive either in-person or telemedicine post-operative follow-up within 30 days after surgery.
This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-arm, multicenter, phase II trial design to allow a rapid efficacy and toxicity assessment of potential therapies (camostat mesilate and artemisia annua) immediately after COVID-19 positive testing in mild to moderate disease and high-risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity among others.
The addition of ultrasound-induced adipose tissue cavitation (UATC) at the level of the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue may seem relevant as an additive treatment option to exercise intervention in individuals with obesity. However, whether individuals with obesity who participate in an exercise intervention and additionally undergo UATC, are more likely to develop a metabolically healthy phenotype, as opposed to subjects with obesity undergoing exercise training or UATC only, remains to be studied. Therefore, the first aim of this study is to examine the impact of combined UATC during exercise intervention on abdominal subcutaneous and whole-body adipose tissue mass, quality of life and cardiometabolic risk in individuals with abdominal obesity.
The purpose of the Exerci-Zzz Study is to learn more about how the time of day that exercise is performed influences sleep quality and fat metabolism overnight in adults with metabolic syndrome. In this study, exercise will be performed in the early evening and the investigators will measure participants' sleep quality and fat metabolism overnight in a metabolic room. The total study will take approximately 2-3 months to complete. Enrolled participants will complete 2 study conditions (evening exercise and control) in a metabolic room. Each of these visits will last 30 hours and require that the participant stay in the metabolic room. During the evening exercise participants will be asked to perform exercise in the early evening. Finally, during the control condition participants will be asked spend the day in the metabolic room (no exercise performed during this condition). During each of these conditions, the investigators will measure participant sleep quality and fat metabolism overnight. In the morning, the investigators will perform a metabolic test to assess the responses of certain hormones. Findings from this study will identify how exercise influences novel contributors to metabolic syndrome (sleep quality and nocturnal metabolism) and shed light on some potential mechanisms to explain the variability in exercise responses.
The study will look at how two different forms of semaglutide reach and stay in the blood after injection. None of the two forms of semaglutide have been approved by the authorities to treat obesity. Participants will get 1 of the 2 forms of semaglutide - which one is decided by chance. Participants will get the medicine as an injection under the skin of the stomach with the use of a pen-injector. The type of pen-injector is different for the two forms of semaglutide. The study staff will teach participants how to inject themselves with the medicine. As part of this training participants will self inject placebo (dummy medication) 3 times. Participants will take an injection once a week and will get 21 injections in total of study medication. The study will last for about 27-30 weeks. Participants will have 25 study visits with the study doctor. For 2 of the visits, participants will stay in the clinic for 3 days and 2 nights. Participants may have to stop the study if the study doctor thinks that there are risks for their health. Women cannot take part if they are pregnant, breast-feeding or planning to become pregnant during the study period.
There are great disparities in the prevalence of obesity and chronic disease in different sociodemographic groups. US Hispanic adults, in particular, have a higher prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases than non-Hispanic whites. Population aging is also a major contributing factor to the high prevalence of chronic disease, and Hispanics already make up approximately 10% of the older population. Therefore, preventive measures are needed to reduce the burden of chronic disease risks for Hispanics. Current lifestyle interventions for weight management have been particularly ineffective in this population. The purpose of this pilot project is to develop a novel tailored lifestyle intervention for use by Hispanic older adults with obesity. The Healthy Weight for Living intervention has been validated among adults with mixed racial/ethnic backgrounds and has achieved clinically impactful weight-loss. Its design features make it particularly suitable for use in populations with low adherence to traditional interventions, including no requirement for daily food logging and no increase in physical activity. The final product of this project will be a culturally adapted prototype intervention in Hispanic older adults that accounts for cultural heterogeneity. This work has direct relevance to reducing health disparities and the burden of obesity-associated chronic disease in a particularly at-risk population.
Previous studies have reported that the 5-HT2C receptor agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) decreases appetite and food intake in humans1-3. 5-HT2C receptor activation inhibits dopamine and norepinephrine release in the brain4, and has also been linked to diabetes5. The specificity of the effect of mCPP on human appetite is unclear, as previous studies also reported an increase in nausea1,3. The drug has also been reported to increase anxiety and cause panic attacks when given in a bolus dose intravenously6. Previous findings in our laboratory showed that mCPP reduced appetite, increased satiety in women and enhanced memory in the P1vital® Oxford Emotional Test Battery3. Following up on these results a food intake and fMRI study was performed, in which it was observed that mCPP decreased intake of a palatable snack (hedonic eating) and dlPFC and insula BOLD responses to food pictures. Additionally it increased memory and food value responses in brain after mCPP administration (Thomas et al submitted). It is well established that eating behaviour is affected by metabolic signals (e.g. insulin, ghrelin, serotonin) and is also modulated via food reward processes7. More recently it has been proposed that eating is also modulated via higher cognitive processes such as inhibitory control, attention, and memory. However, in humans, eating behaviour seems to be a more complex process, which involves habits, long-term goals and social interaction. Thus, cognitive processes appear to play an important role in food consumption. In the proposed study the researchers investigate the effect of administering mCPP, on eating, and on metabolic, reward and cognitive processes and the potential interplay between these functions.
This study aims to determine if using the peanut ball during labor reduces the cesarean delivery rate when compared to normal intrapartum management (no peanut ball) in the obese patient population.
The effects of food additives on body weight in humans are largely unknown. This is a before-and-after feasibility study in 5 obese adults who will be followed for 5 months. Eligible participants with meet with the study team and will be taught how to limit the exposure to the studied food additives in their diet. Participants will also be asked to limit eating out to a maximum of 2 days per week. Primary outcomes in this study are recruitment rate, retention rate and adherence to the proposed dietary intervention.