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Obesity is considered the epidemic of the 21st century. Obesity is a multifactorial disease and the most important risk factors are poor diet and sedentary lifestyle. An excessive body weight contributes to increase the risk of suffering from other diseases and mortality rates. Therefore, the prevention and control of excessive body weight as well as its comorbidities are essential. In this sense, the principal strategy to treat obesity is to improve dietary habits and increase physical activity. However, the rate of obesity continues rising. In order to deal with this problem, new strategies to combat obesity are being investigated, such as the investigation of new bioactive compounds with satiating capacity that can be included in healthy dietary patterns to improve adherence to dietary treatments. Considering this background, the main objective of this research is to assess the effect of daily consumption of protein rich bars accompanied by healthy dietary recommendations on weight loss of overweight/obese adult men and women.
Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (LRYGB) has been the most performed bariatric surgical intervention until a few years ago, due to its good results in terms of weight loss and remission of comorbidities such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. However, more than 25% of patients do not obtain the expected result. There is no uniform technique to perform a LRYGB, but traditionally it was constructed using a long alimentary limb (AL) and a short biliopancreatic limb (BPL). There is no current consensus on the ideal length of the LRYGB limbs. The distal gastric bypass at the expense of a longer biliopancreatic limb (LBPL-GB) could induce more excess of weight loss (EWL%), but with possible protein malnutrition depending on the length of the remaining common limb. The aim of this study is compare a LBPL-GB (BPL 150cm, AL 70cm) with LAL-GB (BPL 70cm, AL 150cm). PRIMARY OUTCOME: to evaluate if there are differences in weight loss. SECONDARY OUTCOME: to assess whether there are differences in both groups in remission of the most common comorbidities and in quality of life. DESIGN: multicenter, prospective, randomized study in blocks (1:1), blinded for the patient and to the surgeon up to the time of intervention, in patients with indication of RYGB for obesity (BMI>35 with associated comorbidity or BMI>40 with or without comorbidity, excluding those of BMI>50). Intervention: LRYGB type 1 (LAL-GB: 150cm ALand 70cm BPL) or type 2 (LBPL-GB: 70cm AL and 150cm BPL). The expected result is that the patients with LBPL-GB present better EWL%, and higher remission of their comorbidities than the comparison group
The aims of this study was to compare two isoenergetic HIIT (High-intensity Interval training) programs (cycling vs. running) on body composition, substrate oxidation at rest and during a moderate exercise, muscle functionality, glycaemic control, lipid profile, inflammation, maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) and gut microbiota composition in men with overweight or obesity. The investigators hypothesized that both programs could decrease total, abdominal and visceral fat mass but due to differences in muscle solicitation, metabolism adaptation and blood flow, and that running could favors greater fat mass losses.
Intermittent fasting is a method of restricting calories over a defined period of time and includes regimens such as whole-day fasting, alternate-day fasting, and time-restricted feeding. There is emerging evidence that intermittent fasting or energy restriction might be more beneficial than continuous energy restriction for some risk factors. The effect of intermittent fasting on risk factors associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, however, is not clear. The European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) has yet to make any recommendations regarding the role of intermittent fasting in the management of diabetes. To inform the update of the EASD Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition Therapy, tthe Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group (DNSG) of the EASD has commissioned a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the effect of different intermittent fasting strategies on established cardiometabolic risk factors. The findings generated by this proposed knowledge synthesis will shape guide current guidelines and improve health outcomes by educating healthcare providers and patients, and by guiding future research design.
Published data suggest that inflammation and fibrosis of adipose tissue could be factors favoring the development of insulin resistance in obese individuals and that a decrease in the activity of the AMP-activity kinase protein (AMPK) could lead to these dysfunctions. However, very few data are available in humans. There is also growing interest in persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a cardiometabolic and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk factor. There is some evidence to suggest that POPs directly contribute to lipid metabolism dysfunction and insulin resistance. Additionally, POPs are stocked in adipose tissue. The accumulation of POPs in adipose tissue therefore limits their bioavailability to other organs, thus reducing their systemic toxicity. It has been observed that a large amplitude weight loss leads to a significant increase in POPs in the blood. The goal of this project is to identify adipose tissue factors/dysfunctions that contribute to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes associated with obesity in humans and thus raise avenues for screening and treatment of these metabolic complications. More specifically, the objectives are: - To study the relationship between AMPK, fibrosis and inflammation of adipose tissue and their role in the development of insulin resistance and T2D associated with obesity; - To examine the relationship between POPs and the cardiometabolic profile.
Approximately 1 in 10 mid-life (age 35-64) Americans have mobility impairing disabilities. People with mobility impairing disabilities are defined using the World Health Organization criteria: community living adults with mobility impairment (e.g., amputation, spinal cord injury). Women with mobility impairing disabilities often struggle with stress, abdominal fat (measured as waist circumference), lack of muscle tissue (measured as handgrip strength) and high cardiometabolic risk. This study investigates the usefulness, acceptability, and effectiveness of two strategies to reduce stress, improve health habits, reduce abdominal fat and increase muscle tissue in mid-life women with mobility impairments. These strategies involve either gentle stretching and strengthening exercises or watching informative videos.
The hypothesis is that the increase in dlPFC brain activity via near-infrared spectroscopy-based Neurofeedback (fNIRS-based NF) training based on near-infrared spectroscopy would allow an improvement of the eating behavior, thus promoting a long-term weight loss in obese subjects. Patients will be trained during a month with 8 NF sessions and results based on clinical data and different questionnaires results will be compared between inclusion and 3 months later
Based on the findings of our formative work, conduct a one-year intervention among African American Adults using revised culturally tailored materials to examine differences in Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk factors among participants (n=198) randomized to one of the 3 dietary patterns: 1) Healthy U.S.-Style Eating Pattern, 2) Healthy Mediterranean-Style Eating Pattern, and 3) Healthy Vegetarian Eating Pattern.
The main objective is to determine the effect that supplementation with 4.8 g/day of w-3 FA [3.2g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1.6 g docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] have on the inflammatory state of obese patients (BMI ≥ 35.0 kg/m2), at the metabolic, cellular and molecular levels.
This is a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of intranasal oxytocin in obese adults with diabetes undergoing bariatric surgery. Subjects will be randomized to receive of intranasal oxytocin or placebo (8 units 3 times daily) for 8 weeks prior surgery. Study visits include screening to determine eligibility, CGM will be connected before and after oxytocin administration, and 1 year post surgery. blood tests including oral glucose tolerance test will be done and fat samples will be taken during surgery. The investigator's hypothesis is that oxytocin administration prior bariatric surgery can induce diabetes remission in patients with diabetes