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Black ethnicity is a major risk factor for chronic kidney disease [CKD] in people with HIV infection, suggesting that genetic factors are an important determinant of kidney disease progression in this population. The Gen-Africa study was established in 2018 to allow the study of genetic and clinical risk factors for CKD in people with HIV in the UK. Just over 3000 people across 15 sites were enrolled between May 2018 and January 2020. Demographic and clinical information was collected, and biological samples (buffy coats, plasma and urine) obtained. Cross-sectional analyses have revealed that participants of West-African ancestry are at higher risk of CKD and end-stage kidney disease [ESKD], and that genetic variants in the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene and sickle cell trait (SCT) are predictors of CKD and ESKD. The pathogenesis of APOL1- and SCT-associated CKD is incompletely understood, and additional, longitudinal data will be collected to improve understanding of the contribution of demographic, traditional CKD (diabetes, hypertension, obesity/metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease) and HIV (immuno-virological and hepatitis B/C co-infection status, antiretroviral medications) risk factors as well as additional genetic and epigenetic markers.
Obesity is classified as a low-grade chronic and systemic inflammatory disease and results from complicated interactions between genes and environmental factors, which leads to many diseases and affects the quality of life. There are growing interests in the effectiveness of probiotics as a supplementation to treat obesity through regulating microbiota host metabolism. Probiotics may influence the interplays among gut, brain, adipose, and liver in a way leading to weight. Since limited studies have been conducted on human subjects, more investigation is needed in this field. Therefore, this study sheds light on the investigation of the anti-obesity effect of probiotic supplementation.
The objective of this project is to evaluate strategies to increase patient engagement in evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for obesity. The scientific premise of the proposed project is based on: 1) substantial evidence that EBIs for obesity are effective but grossly underutilized, 2) promising results indicating that technology-based approaches such as text messaging may increase the reach of EBIs among underserved populations, 3) data demonstrating that repeated offers of treatment can substantially increase enrollment even among patients who are initially unmotivated, and 4) prior research highlighting the effectiveness of Motivation And Problem Solving (MAPS), a proactive coaching approach used to address barriers to improve patient enrollment in EBIs. Thus, the proposed project will develop, implement, and evaluate two strategies for increasing the assessment and enrollment of University of Utah Medicaid patients in online EBIs for obesity: 1) Repeated offers of EBIs for obesity using text messaging and state of the science health communication strategies, 2) MAPS navigation/counseling among patients who do not enroll in EBIs in response to text messaging. The proposed project will provide critical data regarding the implementation of pragmatic and scalable interventions that are designed to increase the reach of existing EBIs for obesity among underserved populations. Most importantly, the project results lay the foundation for the widespread dissemination of strategies to increase use of EBIs for obesity across Utah, the Mountain West region, and the nation. Project deliverables include 1) a text messaging intervention for facilitating connection to EBIs for obesity; 2) MAPS intervention for facilitating connection to EBIs for obesity; 3) implementation, adaptation, and optimization of these interventions for University of Utah Medicaid patients, 4) preliminary evidence for the efficacy of these two interventions in improving the reach of EBIs for obesity, and 5) creation of a plan for further dissemination.
In this study, the investigators evaluated the association between various measures of adiposity [BMI and waist circumference (WC)] and clinical outcomes in Asian patients with Myocardial Infarction who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery, using a nationwide population based cohort.
In this study, the investigators evaluated the association between various measures of adiposity [BMI and waist circumference (WC)] and clinical outcomes in Asian patients with AF who were prescribed OAC, using a nationwide population based cohort.
The objective of the project is to develop a potentially marketable system for clinical, epidemiological and translational research capable of associating contextual variables and geospatial data with clinical patient information. The GeoHealth system will include a section to perform exploratory analysis that will help identify risk factors to optimize clinical decision making. The system will be used in a study of the influence of environmental factors in more than 800,000 asthmatic patients in the region of Andalucía, Spain. The results of this study will help to develop predictive models of risk of exacerbation in asthma patients. Currently, disease management guidelines state that asthma control has two components: current disease control and future risk of exacerbations. These two components are key when assessing disease management, following a stepwise model that seeks to improve current control and minimize future risk. However, although the current control of the disease is defined and has established methodologies for its measurement (Asthma Control Test -ACT- and Asthma Control Questionnaire -ACQ-), the risk of suffering exacerbations is not yet a measurable component. Therefore, these predictive models could help in professional decision making for asthmatic patients. The predictive models will be validated prospectively and implemented in a decision support system for the management of asthmatic patients.
There are several studies performed to reveal the linkage between diet, fecal microbiota, and obesity. Human fecal microbiota transplantations in this asset are still scarce. Therefore, this pilot study of FMT from lean to obese people with dietary counseling will increase the knowledge, whether FMT could play a role in the treatment of obesity and NAFLD. Our primary outcome is the changes in glucose metabolism by HOMA-IR.
This research is to expand a virtual weight loss and weight maintenance program to rural counties of Illinois. The program uses dietary and lifestyle modifications for adults with obesity. The EMPOWER weight loss program has proven to be effective in 3 previous trials. In this research, we target a rural participant population. Individuals in rural locations are more likely to be affected by obesity and have unique barriers to weight loss related to geographic isolation including access to health care, preventative care, grocery stores, social networks, internet, and cell service.
The primary objective of this study is to test the feasibility and acceptability of a 12-week behavioral weight management intervention adapted for Black men living in the rural South. The intervention is guided by Self-Determination Theory of Motivation, Social Cognitive Theory, and Ecological Systems Theory. Key aspects of the intervention include a football-themed curriculum, facilitator and peer concordance to the extent possible (ie., similarly aged Black men), an emphasis on male-specific health concerns, group-based competition at multiple levels of the intervention (e.g., during in-person physical activity sessions and for achieving behavioral goals), a limited educational component, and physical activity being a substantial component of meeting sessions.
Despite the worldwide increase of both obesity and use of minimally invasive liver surgery(MILS), evidence regarding the safety and eventual benefits of MILS in obese patients is scarce. The aim of this study is therefore to compare the outcomes of non-obese and obese patients(BMI 18.5-29.9 and BMI≥30, respectively) undergoing MILS and OLS, and to assess trends in MILS use among obese patients. In this retrospective cohort study, patients operated at 20 hospitals in eight countries(2009-2019) will be included and the characteristics and outcomes of non-obese and obese patients will be compared. Thereafter, the outcomes of MILS and OLS were compared in both groups after propensity-score matching(PSM). Changes in the adoption of MILS during the study period will be investigated.