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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia worldwide. AF is associated with obesity and the co-morbidities of obesity, including hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) which increase left atrial (LA) size and decrease LA function. Semaglutide, a Glucagon-like peptide receptor 1 agonist (GLP-1 RA), is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for weight loss for individuals with and without diabetes. The effects of pharmacologic weight loss with Semaglutide on AF are unknown. The investigators plan on conducting a randomized controlled trial of semaglutide versus placebo in individuals with paroxysmal or early persistent AF (>10% AF burden on ambulatory monitoring, a previous electrical cardioversion, or AF lasting ≥ 7 days but < 3 months who have a body mass index ≥ 27.0 kg/m2. The trial will last for 52 weeks. The primary outcome will be the change in AF burden for 2 weeks, immediately before starting the medication or placebo to two weeks starting at week 50, as determined by an implantable loop recorder or two week ambulatory Additional outcomes will be change in epicardial adipose tissue as determined by chest/abdomen/pelvis computed tomography scan at enrollment and at week 52, change in apnea-hypopnea index from baseline sleep study to week 52 sleep study, change in LA longitudinal strain from baseline echocardiogram to echocardiogram at 52 weeks, and change on symptom surveys.
This research project aims to investigate, in an innovative way, the molecular pathophysiology of gestational complications induced by maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). These complications have an immediate impact on obstetric outcomes - such as pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction - as well as long-term consequences for the health of the mother and child. This proposal aims to advance the understanding of the relationship between subclinical maternal and placental inflammation with dietary components through a prospective cohort of pregnant women. To this end, a prospective cohort of pregnant women will be conducted with four follow-up waves: 13th-20th (baseline), 24th-28th, 32nd-36th gestational weeks and at the time of delivery. Retrospective data referring to the first trimester of pregnancy will be obtained from the medical records. Pregnant women will be invited to participate in the study by registering at the prenatal service. Women who start prenatal care with less than 13 weeks of gestation will be registered, for capture in the 2nd consultation. The initial sample calculation is 120 volunteers. Maternal blood samples will be collected at 2 times: 2nd trimester appointment and 3rd trimester appointment. Placental and umbilical cord blood samples will be collected immediately after delivery. Dietary consumption during pregnancy will be assessed by 2 24-hour recalls at each visit (1 in person and 1 by telephone). The identification of functional biomarkers in maternal blood and placenta will serve for prognostic purposes of gestational complications such as Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. The identification of dietary factors associated with obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus and associated complications will provide information that will serve as a basis for nutritional guidelines for pregnant women.
The mechanisms regulating fat mass homeostasis are incompletely understood although recent animal and human trials would suggest that there is a leptin independent regulatory pathway which may play a role in weight control and maintenance. Although evidence would suggest that external loading in patients with obesity may promote body weight loss, this has not been explored in patients following bariatric surgery. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms regulating weight loss and the potential role of the 'gravitostat' in fat free mass retention in patients following bariatric surgery.
The purpose of this study is to comprehensively evaluate Salud Escolar (School Health), a program led by the Mexican Ministries of Health and Education. This comprehensive evaluation considers a design, implementation, results, and impact evaluation of Salud Escolar.
This study aims to compare, in subjects with obesity-hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) treated by long-term non-invasive ventilation (NIV), resting energy expenditure (REE) in spontaneous breathing and under NIV. The hypothesise of this study is that REE will be lower under NIV than under spontaneous breathing.
This study is exploring the association between vitamin D and Type 2 diabetes risk in normal weight and overweight UK adults.
Inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD), such as rheumatoid arthritis, are characterized by adverse changes in body composition. Lean mass and bone mineral density are usually reduced while adiposity (total fat mass, visceral adiposity…) is increased in comparison with healthy controls. Many factors may influence the body composition of those patients such as aging, Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARDs), nutrition and physical activity. However, data on body composition and adverse changes under DMARDs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are actually scarce. This is the case with tofacitinib (targeted synthetic DMARD or tsDMARD) while preliminary data let us think that this treatment may influence body composition and bone mineral density. This study is going to be the first to focus on changes in body composition (fat mass and lean mass), bone mineral density and bone marrow adiposity under tofacitinib.
The study is evaluating the effects of a standard diet to a low carbohydrate diet in obese women after having a baby. The purpose of the study is to determine if a low carbohydrate diet is associated with improvement in insulin sensitivity in postpartum women.
The first phase of the study is a feasibility survey of eligible participants, completed prior to initiating the intervention. The intervention consists of a 12-month cluster randomized trial with a waitlist control that recruits 240 older AA women through public housing communities and senior centers in North Carolina. The rationale for these aims is that the successful completion is expected to provide evidence that a community-based, peer-led weight loss program with a national infrastructure can help a vulnerable, underserved population lose weight and improve their physical function. For older, obese, frail individuals, this could improve their CVD risk factors, quality of life, enhance their health; reduce their healthcare utilization, illness, and disability; and decrease their adverse geriatric outcomes. After completing these aims, the investigators expect that they will have proven that the community-based, peer-led weight loss program can improve both weight and physical function among older, obese AA women. This also could help other demographic groups with obesity and poor physical function. Eventually, it could help older adults maintain their health and independence in the community
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in reproductive age women, which causes disordered follicle growth and ovulation resulting in infertility. In addition women with PCOS have hyperandrogenemia and a dysregulated hormonal profile, resulting in altered feedback on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Obesity, insulin resistance, vitamin D (VD) deficiency and ageing worsen the symptoms. The gonadotrophins - follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) & luteinising hormone (LH), along with the pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) have structural similarities. The altered levels of FSH and LH in women with PCOS cause production of hCG from the brain leading to false positive pregnancy tests. Part one of this project will involve the investigation of this over-production of hCG in urine and serum of women with PCOS to develop suitable ovulation and pregnancy test kits, in collaboration with Swiss Precision Diagnostics (SPD). In Part two of the project, we would like to see if intervention with VD supplementation and/or using myo-inositol supplement compared with metformin (insulin sensitiser), improves prediabetes, distribution of fat/water content, weight loss and menstrual cyclicity in women with PCOS. We aim to correlate these interventions with particular serum & urine markers to develop better diagnostic tools.