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Assess the impact of bariatric surgery on hepatic energy metabolism and glucose and insulin dynamics in obese youth
It is aimed to understand the gender differences on factors affecting the resting metabolic rate of people in different professional status. The relation between daily and weekly walking and sitting time, body mass index (kg/m2), Ponderal Index (kg/cm), waist-to-hip ratio of the participants will be searched. In this context, the demographic data (age, gender, neck and waist circumference (cm), occupation, education level) of the participants will be gathered with a questionnaire, specifically prepared for this study. The body composition analyses and International Physical Activity Level Questionnaire (IPAQ), Healthy Eating Index (HEI) will also be used to understand their body composition, physical activity level and eating habits, respectively. The data will be compared to understand the effects of education level and type of occupation on their physical activity level, as well as, the effects of trainings on adapting healthy behaviour of the participants as physical activity, healthy eating habits in relation to gender and professional status.
The purpose of this study is to compare the relative bioavailability of JNJ-64565111 between subcutaneous (SC) administrations in the upper arm versus the abdomen, and between SC administrations in the thigh versus the abdomen in otherwise healthy overweight/obese participants.
The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of JNJ-64565111 compared with placebo in severely obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) participants after 12 weeks of treatment on: the percentage change in body weight from baseline and safety and tolerability.
In obese children, excess fat exerts an increased mechanical burden on the respiratory system, particularly during exercise. It is unclear whether this burden reduces respiratory function and exercise tolerance and increases severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in obese asthmatic children. The investigators propose that most of the respiratory effects in obese asthmatic children are the result of low lung volume breathing (i.e., reduced functional residual capacity). The first objective of this study is to investigate respiratory function, exercise tolerance, and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in obese vs. nonobese asthmatic children. Guidelines from the American Thoracic Society strongly recommend interval warm-up exercise before planned exercise to reduce exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity. However, no empirical data on the effects of interval warm-up exercise on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity are available in obese asthmatic children, where excess fat exerts such an unfavorable burden on the respiratory system, particularly during exercise. Thus, the second objective of this study is to investigate the effects of interval warm-up exercise on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity in obese and nonobese asthmatic children. Our approach will be to investigate exercise tolerance, respiratory function, and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity and the effects of (1) 8x30sec interval warm-up & (2) pretreatment with a bronchodilator compared with a no-treatment control on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity in 8-12 yr, prepubescent, obese and nonobese asthmatic children. [Aim 1]: To investigate respiratory function and exercise tolerance [Hypothesis]: Obesity in children with asthma will reduce respiratory function and exercise tolerance [Aim 2]: To investigate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. [Hypothesis]: Obesity in children with asthma will increase exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity as evidenced by a greater maximum % fall in forced expiratory volume in the first second after an exercise challenge test. [Aim 3]: To investigate the effects of interval warm-up exercise on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity. [Hypothesis]: Interval warm-up exercise will reduce exercise-induced bronchoconstriction severity after an exercise challenge test to a similar extent as bronchodilator and better than control, although to a greater extent in nonobese asthmatic children.
Aim of this prospective randomized intervention study is to evaluate the effect of a dietary intervention with a specific micronutrient-probiotic-combination for 12 weeks on fatty liver and cardiometabolic status in obese, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients after Mini-Gastric Bypass (MGB) surgery.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in youth is increasing in prevalence in parallel with the obesity epidemic. In the US, almost half of patients with renal failure have DKD, and ≥80% have T2D. Compared to adult-onset T2D, youth with T2D have a more aggressive phenotype with greater insulin resistance (IR), more rapid β-cell decline and higher prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), arguing for separate and dedicated studies in youth-onset T2D. Hyperfiltration is common in youth with T2D, and predicts progressive DKD. Hyperfiltration may also be associated with early changes in intrarenal hemodynamic function, including increased renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular pressure. Despite the high prevalence and gravity of DKD in youth-onset T2D, widely effective therapeutic options are lacking. The investigators' preliminary data support a strong association between IR and hyperfiltration in youth-onset T2D, but the pathology contributing to this relationship remains unclear. A better understanding of the pathophysiology underlying hyperfiltration and its relationship with IR is critical to inform development of new therapeutics. The investigators' overarching hypotheses are that: 1) hyperfiltration in youth-onset T2D is associated with changes in intrarenal hemodynamics, resulting in increased renal oxygen demand, 2) the demand is unmet by the inefficient fuel profile associated with IR (decreased glucose oxidation and increase free fatty acid [FFA] oxidation), resulting in renal hypoxia and ultimately renal damage. To address these hypotheses, the investigators will measure peripheral insulin sensitivity, adipose insulin sensitivity (FFA suppression), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), RPF, and renal oxygenation in youth with T2D (n=30), obesity (n=20) and in lean (n=20) controls.
The purpose of this survey is to collect the data on perceptions, behaviours and awareness related to obesity and obesity management for People with Obesity (PwO) and Health Care Professionals (HCP) treating obesity. Data will be collected via online surveys among each of the respondent groups. The surveys are expected to take approximately 25 minutes to complete and will be unique for PwO and HCP. As a cross-sectional study, there will be no treatment of patients.
This is a single site, double-blind, randomized, crossover study designed to compare the effects of dietary supplementation with flax oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and fish oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on oxylipin profiles over time (0 to 4 weeks) and among obese females varying in their inflammatory state. Additional assessments will include plasma fatty acid composition, adipokines, markers of adipocyte dysfunction and inflammation; immune cell/monocyte fatty acid composition, and functional properties including their metabolism and oxylipin production; and vascular function.
The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of adiposity on resistance to insulin's ability to suppress hepatic glucose production and to stimulate peripheral glucose metabolism in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. In addition, this study will also examine the role of fatty liver disease on the insulin resistance of obesity in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.