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Gut hormones have therapeutic potential in the prevention and treatment obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Rodent evidence suggests that calcium may potentiate the effects of protein ingestion on gut hormone secretion. Evidence in humans however, is lacking. This study aims to assess whether the addition of calcium to protein ingestion augments postprandial gut hormone availability in humans.
Gut hormones have therapeutic potential in the prevention and treatment obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Rodent evidence suggests that calcium may stimulate gut hormone secretion. Evidence in humans however, is lacking. This study aims to assess whether the calcium ingestion stimulates gut hormone availability in humans.
The aim of the proposed study is to assess the efficacy of a low-literacy/numeracy-oriented intervention to promote healthy lifestyles and preventing obesity among young children in under-resourced communities. The study will occur in pediatric resident physician care practices since nationally, resident practice sites provide care to more than one-fifth of the socioeconomically disadvantaged families in the US.
In this manuscript, we investigated the effect of resistance training (RT) on body composition, functional capacity, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in sarcopenic obesity elderly women, using a randomized controlled trial.
The study will examine the mechanisms linking race, stress and biobehavioral factors to energy balance and obesity in both natural and controlled environments in African-American and Caucasian adolescent females.
Social networks, social capital, i.e., network-accessed resources, and neighbourhood environments have been shown associated with a range of health behaviours and conditions, including obesity, physical activity, nutrition, and mental health. Research on social capital and health in Montreal has shown the importance of network social capital for a person's subjective health status, sense of control, self-reported physical activity, and obesity. Research has also shown high social capital to reduce health service use, mental health service use, and improve the management of chronic illnesses. Despite advances in the understanding of social capital and its link to health and health service use, most research on social capital is cross sectional and is unable to identify the causal pathways linking social networks and capital to health and health care use. Longitudinal research would strengthen the evidence base for designing interventions to prevent or delay the use of health services, particularly in older adults. This research has three main objectives: (1) transform the original sample of Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging (MoNNET-HA) households (n=2707) into a panel study, (2) link the MoNNET-HA participant data to their Quebec Health Insurance Registry (Régie de l'assurance maladie (RAMQ)) information, and (3) assess the feasibility of extending the MoNNET-HA panel by one wave to include participant's core network members. Unique about the original MoNNET-HA sample is that it purposefully oversampled older adults (> 64 years old) but remains representative of Montreal adults at various ages and income levels. In addition, MoNNET-HA data is integrated into a GIS database which allows researchers to examine the effects of neighbourhood environmental characteristics on health. By linking MoNNET-HA data to RAMQ, researchers will be able to examine patterns of diagnosed health conditions, (e.g., fractures, depression), pharmaceutical use and adherence, and formal health care use over time. Transforming the cross-sectional study into a panel study would also allow researchers to examine longitudinally the dynamics of health and health care utilization among Panel participants over the life course, and the causal pathways linking neighbourhoods and networks to health and health care use.
The present study will investigate the effect of high-fat overfeeding on a group of liver-secreted proteins linked to worsened blood sugar control, as well as proteins involved in appetite control. Participants will consume both a high-fat diet, consisting of 50% extra calories above their daily required intake, and a control diet, consisting of their normal 'habitual' diet, with each diet lasting seven days. The diets will be undertaken in a randomised order, with a period of three weeks separating the two diets. Blood samples will be taken before and after each diet to measure blood sugar control. Further blood samples will also be taken 24 hours and 72 hours into each diet to see how levels of the liver and appetite-regulating proteins change over the course of the seven days. It is expected that blood sugar control will be worsened by the high-fat diet and this will be accompanied by increases in levels of the liver-secreted proteins and an impaired release of the appetite-regulating proteins into the blood.
The overarching aims of this project are to develop and pilot test a novel, patient-centered, family model for weight management [Acceptance-based Behavioral Treatment (ABBT)] in children aged 8-12 with obesity and their caregivers. Our aims are (1) to determine the treatment needs of children aged 8-12 with obesity and their families with a focus on executive functioning and (2) to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of family ABBT.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with diabetes (T2DM) is increasing in prevalence and can lead to cirrhosis. Lifestyle intervention with caloric restriction (CR) is the cornerstone of treatment but remission is variable. Alternatively, the PI has shown alternate day fasting (ADF) is safe and well tolerated in obese patients and there might be additional beneficial effects. The objective is to combine the expertise of the PI with this novel intervention and the expertise of Dr. Cusi in NAFLD to explore the effects of ADF vs CR in patients with NAFLD and T2DM to test the following hypotheses: H1: In patients with NAFLD and T2DM, the ADF intervention will result in more favorable metabolic changes than CR: H1a: Hepatic triglyceride by MRS will decrease more with ADF than CR (Primary Outcome) and remain lower following a period of free living H1b: There will be greater improvements in glucose homeostasis following ADF vs CR H1c: There will be greater improvement in lipid metabolism following ADF vs CR and changes in ketone metabolism will predict changes in hepatic triglyceride content H2: ADF will have similar safety and tolerability and result in a similar degree of weight loss in participants with NAFLD and DM compared to CR
The purpose of this study is to test how the brain responds when individuals eat enjoyable foods such as chocolate. Eating certain foods can make one want to keep eating even when feeling full, caused by dopamine in the brain. The researchers believe this dopamine response can be measured by looking at the individual's eye.