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Carbon-12 and carbon-13 are naturally-occurring isotopes that are found in exhaled breath. Investigators have proved that the 13CO2/12CO2 breath delta value (BDV) changes in subjects who were in negative energy balance then fed a positive energy balance meal. Measuring one liter of exhaled breath daily may be a more convenient way to measure negative or positive energy balance in patients receiving intravenous nutrition.
The impact of breastfeeding on the infant microbiome in vaginally and Cesarean delivered offspring from obese and normal weight mothers.
Despite being effective in weight reduction in severely obese patients, bariatric surgery (BS) negatively influences bone metabolism and increases the risk of falls thereby potentially increasing the risk of fracture. The mechanisms of BS induced bone loss are unknown but may be related to calcium and vitamin D malabsorption, changes in the energy regulation metabolism and gastrointestinal hormonal physiology. Since the etiology of BS induced bone loss is largely unknown, treatment relies mostly on calcium and vitamin D supplementation, which provide little benefit. Exercise is an effective strategy to prevent bone mass losses in several health conditions. However, no study so far has examined the effects of an exercise-training program in the prevention of BS induced bone loss. The investigators main goal is to investigate the effects on bone metabolism and fracture risk of an exercise-training program specifically tailored to improve bone health and balance of patients that underwent BS. The investigators will perform a randomized controlled trial on obese patients (n=80; BMI>40 Kg.m-2) elected to BS. Patients will be randomly assigned into 2 groups i) a group receiving standard follow-up and medical care, or ii) a group that will undergo a 11 months' Exercise Training program designed to improve bone health and reduce fall risk plus the standard follow-up and medical care. All patients will be assessed i) before the surgery, ii) one month, iii) 6 months, and iv) 12 months after the surgery. Assessments include: biochemical markers of bone turnover (BTM), BMD, bone tissue biomechanical properties, hormones involved in the regulation of energy, gastrointestinal and bone metabolism, body composition, BMI, nutritional intake, balance, muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and daily physical activity. These evaluations will allow the investigators to understand the effects of an exercise-training program on bone metabolism of BS patients, contributing also to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying BS induced bone loss and fracture risk increase. The investigators will use established methods in the literature as well as novel procedures, which will enable them to overcome some of the limitations of previous studies. At the end of the study the investigators expect to have collected consistent data about whether an exercise-training program is or is not able to effectively prevent BS induced bone losses and fracture risk increases.
Obesity is an increasing health problem in the United Kingdom (UK) and is predicted to worsen. In the UK and worldwide the three most commonly performed operations are laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding ('BAND surgery'), laparoscopic gastric bypass ('BYPASS') and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy ('SLEEVE'). All lead to weight loss, but they are associated with different problems. This study (BYBANDSLEEVE) is a randomised trial with a target recruitment of 1341 patients in eleven hospitals and its aim is to compare the effectiveness, cost effectiveness and acceptability of BAND, BYPASS and SLEEVE surgery.
The Mediterranean diet (MD), a healthy dietary pattern based on some common dietary characteristics in Mediterranean countries, is associated with high antioxidant capacity linked to the low saturated fat intake that might contribute to reduce free fatty acid (FFA) availability and oxidation in mitochondria, thus reducing the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide, and promoting cellular health. To assess the adherence to the MD, a simple 14-item questionnaire had been tested in different settings by the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) multicenter, randomized, primary prevention trial. On the other hand, to allow a more an accurate measurement of the actual macro and micronutrient intakes, including dietary anti-oxidant micronutrients, the 7-day food records is considered as the "gold standard" of self-administered food frequency questionnaires. Circulating levels of Sirtuin 4 (Sirt4), part of a complex of proteins that control diverse biological processes, including lipid metabolism, are low in obese patients, as a possible attempt to decrease fat oxidative capacity and mitochondrial ROS production, however promoting ectopic liver fat storage. The phase angle (PA), a measure determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and the visceral adiposity index (VAI), a gender-specific mathematical index based on simple anthropometric and metabolic parameters, represent well-validated, reliable and widely used markers of cellular health and ectopic adipose distribution and function, respectively. The fatty liver index (FLI) is a surrogate measure for fatty liver recently proposed as an independent predictor for diabetes mellitus. Aim of the present study was to investigate in adult obese individuals the levels of Sirt4 according to the adherence to the MD evaluated by PREDIMED questionnaire, focusing on the possible association with single dietary components evaluated by 7-day food records, and to evaluate the association between circulating levels of Sirt4 and PA, as marker of cellular health, VAI, as index of adipocyte dysfunction, and FLI, as a predictor of fatty liver.
This study investigated the immediate effects of Kinesio taping on muscular power, strength, endurance, and lower limb fatigue when taping is applied to rectus femoris and around the patella of obese adults based on Kinesio taping techniques.
The NutriGen project will be using nutrigenomic methods to determine the effectiveness of treatments with specific dietary foods, on the basis of genetic risk predisposition (genetic signature) of obese individuals.
TREND is a pilot randomized trial comparing two alternative methods of initiating a low-calorie weight loss diet. We will compare the traditional diet initiation of abruptly dropping energy intake to 1000 kcal/day for women and 1200 kcal/day for men versus a 6 week tapering of energy intake from a baseline level. We will compare these two approaches with respect to their impact on energy regulatory systems of the body, weight loss and other measures, up to a year after diet initiation.
The aim of this Phase II Small Business Technology Transfer grant is to complete development of a virtual reality intervention to augment and improve commercial Internet-delivered behavioral weight loss treatments, and to test it in a randomized controlled trial.
The aim of this project is to elucidate how high-fat meals with different kinds of dairy products affect postprandial responses of lipid metabolism and inflammatory markers in healthy and obese subjects.