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Two dietary approaches, very low energy diets (VLEDs) and ketogenic low carbohydrate diets (KLCDs), have the ability to suppress appetite. The suppression of appetite typically observed during these diets is believed (but not clinically proven) to be due to ketosis, a condition where circulating concentrations of ketone bodies are increased due to a higher production of ketones in the liver. Little is known about the potential mechanisms through which ketosis may lead to appetite suppression in VLEDs and KLCDs. A 'ketogenic diet' typically contains less than 50 grams carbohydrate per day, yet ketosis has been seen in subjects who consume diets with a carbohydrates ranging between 59-192 grams per day. Although an association between ketosis and appetite suppression has been established, the minimum level of ketosis and maximum carbohydrate intake that is still associated with appetite suppression remains unknown and should be explored. The ability to increase carbohydrate intake while maintaining a suppressed appetite will allow dieters to consume more carbohydrate-rich food that is beneficial for health without feeling more hungry. The aim of this study is, therefore, to identify the maximum carbohydrate intake that is still associated with appetite suppression in a low energy diet and to determine the impact of a higher carbohydrate intake on appetite suppression, body composition, and resting metabolic rate.
This study will examine differences in diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) between a meal made of processed ingredients and an equivalent, isocaloric meal made of whole ingredients. For the purpose of this study processed foods (PFs) will be considered those that are purchased in a state that is modified from their whole food (WF) counterpart (e.g. shell eggs compared to powdered eggs). Research has shown that less energy is expended to digest processed foods than whole foods, which confers an advantage to processed foods in terms of caloric efficiency, but a disadvantage in terms of energy balance and weight loss. A 2010 study showed that subjects expended approximately 10% less energy to digest sandwiches made of white bread and cheese product compared to sandwiches made of whole grain bread and cheddar cheese. The intent of this study is to enhance those results and improve upon the study design by constructing meals to be more similar in the makeup of individual ingredients, making ingredient processing a more isolated variable. Subjects will be healthy CWU male students with a body mass index of 18.5 - 24.9 kg/m2. Metabolism will be assessed by repeated measurements of resting energy expenditure via indirect calorimetry. Measurements of baseline metabolism will be made; subjects will then be provided one of two meals, both comprised of rice, green beans, and eggs cooked in canola oil and equivalent but differing in processing status (e.g. brown rice and white rice, fresh cooked green beans and canned green beans, etc). Hourly metabolic measurements will be made post-meal for 6 hours. During this time subjects will be asked to minimize non-DIT deviations in metabolism; e.g. those due to physical activity, excitement level, etc. The procedure will be repeated one week later with the other meal so that changes in DIT can be assessed on a subject-by-subject basis. The results of this study will be assessed in the lens of weight loss, specifically dietary choices that affect energy balance. It is possible that consuming a diet that includes more whole foods (versus processed foods) would be beneficial to the attainment of a healthy body weight - either through potential weight loss or weight maintenance.
Obesity and its associated comorbidities are becoming a key and rapidly growing public health problem. The cause of obesity is an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure in favor of the former. Childhood and adolescence are seen as critical time for its development. It is therefore crucial to provide both prevention and treatment actions already during childhood. The prevention and treatment weight-management programs in children focus on improving diet, eating behaviours, psychosocial aspects and increasing physical activity. One important basic requirement for any weight-management program is, that both children and their families are motivated and ready for change. Video games, including exergames, serious games or combined approaches offer additional chances in the treatment and prevention of obesity by approaching children in their environment and motivating them to deal with life-style topics. As children do not decide alone what they eat - but their parents - the involvement of parents in the intervention appears to be very important to reach a sustained effect. The investigators developed a motion-controlled serious game for children aged between 9 and 12 years, addressing all the three core areas nutrition, physical activity, and psychosocial factors. In addition to the motion control, a tablet is used for knowledge-based and cognitive tasks. In comparison to other studies the nutrition part not only deals with the food pyramid but also with the energy density of foods and liquids and offers a self-reflexive diagnostic tool to analyse daily food intake. Moreover, psychological aspects, especially stress and stress-coping strategies are addressed e.g. by relaxation-exercises and a reflexion exercise about leisure behaviour. The game consists of two sessions, having each a duration of about 35 minutes. The aim of the KOP-1 study was to evaluate the game regarding its acceptance and efficacy in a cluster-randomized controlled trial in a primary school setting in children aged 9 to 12 years. The aim of the here presented KOP-2 study is to evaluate the game regarding its acceptance and efficacy in a randomized controlled trial in parents of primary school children aged 9 to 12 years receiving the KOP-1 intervention. Therefore, 4th grade pupils of the same school will be randomly allocated to an intervention and a control group. Both groups will play the game within two weeks, whereas the intervention group will take the game home on a tablet computer to play it with their parents in between session 1 and 2. At baseline, one day after session 2 and at four weeks follow-up, measurements will be performed in pupils and the parents of the intervention group. The primary outcomes of the study are the gain of knowledge (nutrition, psychosocial aspects) in parents and children, measured by a self-constructed questionnaires tailored specifically for the serious game. Secondary outcomes are the interaction of pupils and their parents for the intervention group, acceptance of the game, changes of nutrition behaviour, physical activity and intentions of the children to follow a healthy lifestyle, measured by mostly validated questionnaires.
This program is a non-diet approach to obesity prevention for older adolescents which does not promote following a special diet to manage weight; instead, it promotes healthy behavior associated with obesity prevention. This approach is especially important with youth and older adolescent populations so as to avoid impairment in emotional well-being associated with body dissatisfaction. Healthy weight status will be achieved by improving dietary intake patterns, increasing physical activity, and improving stress management. Fall of year 01 was devoted to the recruitment of student partners (intense intervention group) and the development of partnerships. In the spring of year 01, recruited students were enrolled in two newly developed undergraduate courses across four intervention state partners, became collegiate 4-H members, planned a social marketing campaign, and/or learned to be peer mentors or student researchers. In year 02, first year college students were recruited, peer mentors were matched with a group of first year students, and the developed social marketing campaign was pilot tested on four college campuses (diffuse intervention) by the collegiate 4-H teams. In year 02, a toolkit with 24 weeks of intervention activities was also refined. In year 03, the collegiate 4-H team (intense intervention group) will use the refined toolkit to test and implement the intervention on college campuses. In year 03, the assessment process for high school 4-H students (intense intervention group) will be pilot tested and college students will work with the high school students on adapting the toolkit for use in the implementation of the social marketing campaign in high school settings in year 04 (diffuse intervention). In year 04, the college tool kit will be disseminated to additional college campuses. In year 05, the program will be disseminated to additional high schools. The nine month interactive, social marketing environmental intervention will aid older adolescents in effectively managing weight through increasing healthfulness of diet, increased physical activity, and improved stress management behavior as compared to a control group. On all measures it is anticipated that participants in the intensive intervention group will have greater improvements than those in the diffuse intervention group and both intensive and diffuse intervention groups will have improvements over those in the control groups.
This study investigates cannabinoid CB1 receptors in human brown adipose tissue (BAT) and other tissues using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Subjects will be scanned in room temperature conditions and during controlled cold exposure, and the density of CB1 receptors in BAT and other tissues will be quantified. We hypothesize, that cannabinoid signaling is increased in cold conditions, when BAT is metabolically active. Understanding the mechanisms of BAT activation and the role of endocannabinoids in humans is important and beneficial in fighting against the epidemic of obesity and diabetes.
Trial Investigating Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics for Single Doses of NNC9204-1177 in Subjects being Overweight or with Obesity
The primary objective of this pilot study is to determine the effect of weight loss on a wide range of biomarkers associated with risk of breast cancer recurrence in overweight and obese breast cancer survivors. We hypothesized that weight loss would result in a statistically significant improvement in biomarkers associated with risk of breast cancer recurrence.
Background: Obesity treatment should be individualized since some calorie restricted diet doesn't work for some individuals. Objective: we assess the effect of two different calorie restriction with MediterrAsian diet on weight loss of FTO rs9939609 carriers with overweight. Methods: we recruit 80 healthy overweight participants aged 20-45 years that randomly allocated in two interventional group [group 1: Mediterrasian diet according to adjusted ideal body weight with 500 calories restriction (RD) and group 2: without 500 calories restriction (NRD)+ Moderate physical activity]. Anthropometric indices will be assesses for all participants weekly for two month. The criteria for weight loss is 250-500 grams weekly. Metabolic indices, physical activity and psychologic aspects will be assesses at baseline and the end of the intervention. Dietary adherence will be checked by 24hr recalls at day 0, 30 and 60. At the end of the study, we compare carriers with different alleles (AA+TA and TT) in two intervention groups to find out which calorie restriction is appropriate for each genotype. Significant p-value is less than 0.05.
The purpose of this study is to collect data to examine how diet impacts the composition and function of the bacteria in your large intestine.
This randomized, controlled trial aims to elucidate the mechanisms by which a plant-based dietary intervention causes weight loss. Using a low-fat, plant-based diet for 16 weeks, along with an untreated control for comparison, the study will measure changes in insulin sensitivity, postprandial metabolism, and intracellular lipid, and assess their associations with changes in body weight.