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In this study, the investigators recruited at-risk individuals (n=26) who were overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2) and obese (> 30.0 kg/m2) and likely to exhibit one or more conditions associated with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). In this 12-week placebo-controlled 2 x 2 crossover dietary intervention, the investigators randomized participants to consume 240 mL (8 ounces) daily of either placebo (artificial cherry-flavored, anthocyanin-free beverage) or TCJ for 4 weeks, followed by a 4-week washout period, then consumption of the alternate beverage for 4 weeks. Subsequently, the investigators determined the effect of TCJ in at-risk participants on markers of uricemia, lipidemia, glycemia, and inflammation.
Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) is adapted from Football Fans in Training and the HealtheSteps™ lifestyle prescription program. Hockey FIT is a 12-month (3-month active phase and 9-month minimally-supported phase) weight loss and healthy lifestyle program for middle-aged, overweight/obese male hockey fans, delivered by trained coaches in collaboration with teams in the Canadian Hockey League (CHL). In the proposed study, 32 sites (affiliated with CHL teams and local YMCA branches) will be randomly assigned to either immediate delivery (Hockey FIT program) or delayed delivery (wait-list control). At each site, 40 male hockey fans at risk for chronic diseases will be recruited to take part in the study. Sites assigned to the delayed delivery group will offer the Hockey FIT program to their enrolled participants after 12 months. Through the Hockey FIT program, the investigators aim to promote weight loss, increase physical activity levels, and improve other health measures through a cost-effective solution that is acceptable and appealing to men who are overweight or obese.
Background: The worldwide prevalence of obesity has tripled since the 1980s. Metabolic imprinting through early childhood nutrition seems to play an important role in the aetiology of obesity. Overweight at age two and later in life is associated with excessive weight gain as early as three months of age. Breastfeeding in the first year of life appears to be a protective measure against risks for obesity development. Objective: of the "Josef Ressel Centre for Early Life Metabolic Programming of Dispositions of Obesity" is to identify maternal and infant predictors of metabolic risk in childhood obesity. The main considerations of modifiable factors are early infant nutrition, 24-hours-drinking-volume, the velocity of infant weight gain, in relation to infant fat mass and fat free mass, to biomarker and to the nutritional status of the mother. A second focus is put on maternal feeding style, infant eating behaviour and the identification of satiety cues. Multi-Study design: monocentric based on a prospective longitudinal cohort of 100 healthy, non-obese, non-smoking pregnant mothers and their term, normal birthweight, singleton babies dyads. Mothers and exclusively breastfed versus exclusively formula fed children (at 16 weeks) will be examined at 36 weeks of pregnancy, 4 - 8 - 12 and 16 weeks of life, as well as a follow-up at 1 and 2 years of life. Methods: four weighing protocols between 4th and 16th week of life, feeding diary, anthropometric data measurement of mother and child, child fat mass index by air displacement plethysmograph PeaPod™ and BodPod™ of the company Cosmed™. The macronutrient and energy content of the breast milk will be also analysed by MIRIS™. Well-defined biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation, lipid profile, ghrelin, leptin, adipokines insulin, as well as micro- und macronutrients will be analysed as meaningful indicators regarding the development of obesity and/or the metabolic syndrome in newborns. Samples, such as plasma, urine, saliva, and stool of the mothers and children will be examined with High Performance Liquid Chromatography, High Performance Gas Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and more. Also questionnaires for the evaluation of the maternal milk feeding style are used as well as the Baby and Child Eating and Behaviour Questionnaire at 16 weeks, 1 and at 2 years. A semi-automatic recognition of infants' satiety cues during feeding will be performed. The recording environment includes video cameras and microphones, a pulse oximeter, etc. All signals are synchronously recorded with the aid of the hardware and software infrastructure (Noldus-Observer- XT™, Noldus-Media-Recorder™). Timeframe: January 2017 - December 2021
This study investigates the effect of intranasal insulin on cognitive processes (behavioural and neural) in healthy lean and obese female adults. All subjects will receive a single-dose of intranasal insulin and/or placebo (on different days) before participating in several cognitive tasks.
Gastric emptying rate, glycemic response, fermentation, and appetitive response are being assessed after consumption of traditional West African carbohydrate-based foods (pearl millet couscous, pearl millet thick porridge) and Western type carbohydrate-based foods (wheat couscous, white rice).
The ileal brake is a feedback mechanism controlling stomach-mediated transit of a meal, for which gastric emptying can be used as an indicator. Previously, slowly digestible carbohydrates (SDCs) were shown to activate the ileal brake in a rat model; the current research aimed to determine the effect of common SDCs in humans.
Consumption of slowly digestible carbohydrates can elicit higher satiety feeling compared to rapidly digestible carbohydrates, however not all individuals respond the same. The physiological mechanism that accounts for the satiety effect and the lack of consistency among subjects is not fully understood. The overall aim of this research is to determine if consumption of slow digestible carbohydrates (e.g., millet couscous) can induce non-responding subjects (i.e., with rapid gastric emptying) to activate the ileal brake and delay rate of gastric emptying.
In Mexico, 7 out of 10 adults are overweight or obese. The diseases associated with these conditions (diabetes, cardiovascular disease and some cancers) are those that impact the most on the disability-adjusted life years of Mexicans and on their mortality rates. A reduction in body weight of 5-10% can reduce the incidence of obesity related diseases. The gold standard for treating obesity is an intensive lifestyle change program such as the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) whose effectiveness has been evaluated in various formats and populations with positive results, including in Mexico. However, the DPP is not accessible to all sectors of the population. To increase its dissemination, the implementation of online interventions based on the DPP (oi-DPP) has been proposed. A systematic review of oi-DPP showed promising results, however, the evidence is limited and the lack of studies of high methodological quality is highlighted. The main objective of this project is to evaluate the efficacy of an oi-DPP for weight loss in Mexican adults with overweight or obesity at 3 months. The study design is a randomized controlled trial with 2 arms: oi-DPP and wait-list control. A 3 months pilot study (n=30) will be conducted prior to the main study to estimate sample size, considering an alpha error of 0.05 and power of 80%. The primary outcome is the mean change in body weight from baseline to 3 months post-baseline between the 2 groups. Secondarily, differences in biochemical parameters (fasting glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and gamma glutamyl transferase) from baseline to 3 months will be evaluated, as well as mean changes from baseline to 3 and 6 months in body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, depression and quality of life scales and the number of participants achieving a weight loss greater than 5% of initial body weight. Body weight will be also evaluated at 6 months post-baseline. The previous measurements will apply both in the pilot study and the study except for the biochemical parameters that will only be included in the main study. The differences between the 2 groups for each variable will be analyzed using a t test for independent samples, in case of having a parametric sample. Otherwise, the Mann-Whitney U test will be used. Analysis will follow the intent-to-treat principle.
The purpose of this pilot study is to assess the feasibility of a 3-month dietary fiber intervention: 1) engaging adolescents in regularly consuming a dietary fiber preparation (psyllium powder) and obtaining their parents' support, 2) recruit into a clinical pilot trial with liquid meal challenge test to study the metabolic effects of the dietary fiber preparation. A study modification will be submitted to add additional study arms for feasibility (strength training, coaching).
Persons with schizophrenia and other serious mental illnesses have a high risk for type 2 diabetes and an increased risk of premature mortality compared to the general population. The goals of the proposed study are to implement a multimodal lifestyle intervention to reduce that risk in these individuals living in residential care facilities, a common housing modality for people with serious mental illnesses. If successful, this intervention will lead to reduction in excess medical comorbidity and mortality in persons with serious mental illnesses.