View clinical trials related to Obesity.Filter by:
Maternal obesity during pregnancy is a serious public health concern as it contributes to inflammation, insulin resistance, and excessive gestational weight gain- all of which negatively impact maternal and neonatal health. Fortunately, physical activity during pregnancy improves obstetric and infant outcomes associated with obesity. Specifically, data from our group demonstrated that irrespective of body weight, women who were physically-active during pregnancy had lower levels of systemic inflammation; however, the mechanism/s driving these changes are poorly understood. Previous studies in non-gravid populations suggest obesity-associated overnutrition may contribute to inflammation and this subsequent inflammation may lead to further metabolic dysfunction- perpetuating a vicious cycle. However, the connections between physical activity, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction (i.e. metabolic inflexibility), particularly in response to a high-fat meal (similar to that which is typically consumed in a Western diet), among lean and obese pregnant women have not been studied. Thus, this study will examine the impact of a physically-active lifestyle on inflammatory and metabolic responses to a high-fat meal in lean and obese pregnant women. Understanding mechanisms connecting maternal physical activity to improved outcomes will better inform future targeted intervention strategies. The goal of this study is to determine the role of a physically-active lifestyle during pregnancy on metabolic function and inflammation following a high-fat meal in lean and obese pregnant women.
Despite the well-established benefits of physical activity, only 23% of pregnant women report exercising in accordance with guidelines recommended by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Further, pregnant women report receiving little or no advice about physical activity during pregnancy from their health care provider; thus, the scientific evidence supporting physical activity during pregnancy does not appear to be translating into the clinic and the community. The goal of this project is to determine if the distribution of evidence-based educational materials and local resources will increase knowledge regarding the benefits of physical activity during pregnancy, patient-provider communication about physical activity during pregnancy, and physical activity levels during pregnancy. Hypothesis A: Pregnant women who receive evidence-based educational materials and local resources will have increased knowledge regarding the benefits of physical activity during pregnancy. Hypothesis B: Pregnant women who receive evidence-based educational materials and local resources will have more communication with their health care provider about physical activity. Hypothesis C: Pregnant women who receive educational information and local resources will report increased physical activity levels. Hypothesis D: Pregnant women who receive evidence-based educational materials and local resources will have improved pregnancy outcomes including lower gestational weight gain, lower insulin resistance (as determined by their clinical oral glucose tolerance test), and healthier neonatal birthweight.
Background and objective: There is an alarming increase in obesity and unhealthy lifestyles in adolescents. This issue threatens to have a highly negative health and socioeconomic impact in the near future. The only way to tackle this epidemic is to implement effective preventive strategies able to positively impact on youth lifestyle behaviours. The school is the most appropriate environment for such an intervention. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a comprehensive educational school-based intervention in adolescents on cardiovascular health, including obesity/adiposity and metabolic profiles. The project consortium constitutes a unique framework of research groups at the forefront of novel and successful approaches aiming to healthier behaviours and dietary habits. Methodology: A cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 24 secondary schools in Spain will be carried out. Schools will be 1:1:1 randomized to receive a short-term (2-year) or a long-term (4-year) comprehensive educational program, or to receive the usual curriculum (control). Participants will be evaluated at baseline, and after 2 and 4 years with the following: weight scale, circumference measuring tape, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, sphygmomanometer, blood analysis, saliva and urine analysis, accelerometers, and questionnaires. The primary outcome is the change in obesity and other health parameters from baseline to year 2 and 4, as assessed by the Ideal Cardiovascular Health score. Secondary outcomes include the change in adiposity, anthropometry and body composition parameters, physical activity and dietary habits, polyphenol and carotenoid intake, metabolomics and attitudes. Participants will be measured again when they reach 20 years old. Expected results: The investigators expects to show that a school-based educational intervention induces favourable lifestyle changes and improves cardiovascular health among Spanish adolescents, including obesity/adiposity and metabolic profiles. If successful, this strategy could be widely adopted having a meaningful effect on obesity and cardiovascular health promotion. Additionally, associations of health parameters with bioactive dietary compounds intake and metabolic profiles will be stablished.
This study investigated whether the provision of a to-go container influenced the portion size effect at a meal. Following a screening visit, women came to the lab once a week for 4 weeks to eat a meal of multiple foods. At each visit, the portion size of the meal was varied in a counterbalanced order. Prior to their first meal, women were randomly assigned to one of two groups: a group that would have their leftovers packaged to go (to-go group) and a group that did not have leftovers packaged (control group). Women were instructed to eat ad libitum at the meals. They also answered questions about hunger and fullness as well as food characteristics before and after each meal. Following the final meal, subjects completed a series of questionnaires assessing subject characteristics as well as food characteristics. It was hypothesized that the effect of portion size on intake would be attenuated in subjects who received a to-go container with the meal. In addition, we aimed to identify any subject characteristics that moderated or exacerbated the portion size effect. It was also of interest to determine whether the portion size effect on individual foods were influenced by food characteristics such as perceived value.
New and creative approaches are needed to address childhood obesity. Current strategies result in suboptimal outcomes and are intensive and costly. It has been theorized that overeating, may have addictive qualities, although few weight management interventions have tested therapeutic techniques founded on addiction medicine principles, such as, withdrawal, tolerance and craving control1, 2. A pilot study utilizing an addiction model based mobile health (mHealth) weight-loss intervention in adolescents showed that the app intervention reduced BMI Z-score (zBMI) to a greater extent than youth participating in an in-clinic multidisciplinary weight management intervention, and appeared to be a cost-effective, labor efficient method for adolescent weight management. The proposed multi-site randomized control trial (RCT) will test the effectiveness of an addiction-based weight loss intervention, embodied first as a smartphone app with telephone coaching and second as an identical approach phone-coaching alone intervention compared to age matched controls participating in an in-clinic weight management interventions in a larger sample of economically, racially and ethnically diverse adolescents (ages 14-18). One hundred and fifty adolescents will be recruited from pediatric interdisciplinary weight management clinics operating out of five different hospital systems in Southern California. The adolescents will be randomized 1:1 via stratified block randomization to either receive 1) six-month interactive addiction model based mobile health (mHealth) weight-loss intervention with personalized phone-coaching, 2) six-month addiction-based phone coaching weight loss intervention alone or 3) six-month addiction model based mHealth weight loss intervention alone. Assessment of the intervention's effect on zBMI and percent over the 95th percentile (%BMIp95), fasting metabolic parameters, addictive eating habits, executive function, and motivation for change will be obtained at enrollment, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months (1 year post intervention follow up). In addition, a real-life economic analysis (cost, cost-saving and non-monetary benefits) analysis will be completed. We will further explore whether primary and secondary outcomes differ by race and whether race moderates the relationship between initial intervention efficacy and prolonged weight maintenance.
Obesity and pre-diabetes threatens the overall health and functional independence of elders but lifestyle weight management for diabetes prevention, soon to be reimbursed by Medicare, can reduce this burden. The current 24-month study will enroll adults, ages 60 and older, through senior community centers. The investigators will study how two long term weight loss maintenance programs, using group telephone sessions to support health behavior change, impact meaningful health outcomes. If successful, this project will provide a sustainable intervention model for healthy aging services that can benefit older adults and society.
To study the effects of liraglutide on neural responses to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in individuals with obesity.
Type 2 diabetes are characterized by insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Insulin resistance plays a major role for the increased risk of heart disease seen in type 2 diabetes. No specific treatment of insulin resistance is currently available, except from increased physical activity and weight-loss. Insulin resistance is characterized by abnormalities in the use of glucose and fat in the muscle, and is associated with abnormal function and content of mitochondria (the power houses of our cells) as well as increased levels of fat within the muscle. The investigators believe that abnormalities in the use of glucose and fat in muscle cells in response to insulin and exercise can explain why insulin resistance is associated with abnormal function and content of mitochondria and an increased amount of fat in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes and individuals with obesity. The major purpose of our project is, therefore, to investigate the effect of insulin in physiological concentrations and the effect of both acute exercise and 8 weeks of exercise-training on 1. insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism, 2. insulin signaling, 3. mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy, 4. regulators of storage of fat into lipid droplets and their interaction with mitochondria in skeletal muscle 5. acetylation and phosphorylation of enzymes (proteins) in major metabolic and signaling pathways, as well as 6. transcriptional and signalling networks regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and substrate metabolism. The effects of insulin in physiological concentrations and novel exercise-interventions combining biking and rowing will be studied in a comprehensive study of obese patients with type 2 diabetes compared with weight-matched obese and lean healthy controls. The effects of insulin and exercise on whole-body metabolism will be evaluated by measurement of maximal oxygen consumption, and well-known methods to determine insulin-stimulated glucose utilization and use of glucose and fat. Skeletal muscle and fat tissue samples obtained under these conditions will be used for assessment of tissue-levels of specific sets of genes and enzymes known to be involved in insulin action, quality and size of mitochondria, and storage of fat into lipid droplets and their interaction with mitochondria. This project is expected to provide important and novel insight into the causal relationship between insulin resistance, accumulation of fat and abnormal content and function of mitochondria in skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes. The investigators ultimately expect that our findings will help us to identify novel molecules or enzymatic pathways, which can be used to develop drugs that can enhance or mimic the effects of insulin and exercise, and hence be used in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of an intervention designed to help increase physical activity and decrease screen time.
The purpose of the study is to determine the effect of intranasal OXT caloric intake and eating behaviors in otherwise healthy obese adolescents. The primary objective of this study is to determine the effects of intranasal administration of oxytocin on food intake in obese, pubertal or post-pubertal adolescents (13 to <18 years in girls, and 15 to <20 years in boys).