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The primarily goal of the research is to better understand progression of disease in patients who present with an acute stroke to the Hamad General Hospital (HGH) stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) clinic. The investigators are specifically interested in patients who have diabetes and have a stroke. The patients enrolled into the research will have detailed clinical evaluation and their imaging studies (MRI and Doppler) will be reviewed. After informed consent, subjects will be examined in the stroke Ward /TIA clinic upon recruitment, and later at less than 48 hours of recruitment (blood extraction and urine samples) and for follow up visits at 1 month+/-7 days (clinical evaluation and to extract blood and urine samples), at 3 months (telephonic conversation only) and at 1 year (clinical and repeat MRI brain). During the initial visit at the ward the investigators will collect serum and plasma for proteomic and metabolomic studies. These will be repeated at less than 48 hours and at 1 month+/-7 days. Investigators will test the effects of risk factors such as diabetes/stroke on the endothelial procoagulant and inflammatory state at onset and evaluate if best medical control leads to improvement in such markers.The repeated studies will determine if better management and presence of certain blood biomarkers can predict or translate to slower progression of disease and correlate it with clinical status.
Patients who experience lung injury are often placed on a ventilator to help them heal; however, if the ventilator volume settings are too high, it can cause additional lung injury. It is proven that using lower ventilator volume settings improves outcomes. In patients with acute brain injury, it is proven that maintaining a normal partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood improves outcomes. Mechanical ventilator settings with higher volumes and higher breathing rates are sometimes required to maintain a normal partial pressure of carbon dioxide. These 2 goals of mechanical ventilation, using lower volumes to prevent additional lung injury but maintaining a normal partial pressure of carbon dioxide, are both important for patients with acute brain injury. The investigators have designed a computerized ventilator protocol in iCentra that matches the current standard of care for mechanical ventilation of patients with acute brain injury by targeting a normal partial pressure of carbon dioxide with the lowest ventilator volume required. This is a quality improvement study with the purpose of observing and measuring the effects of implementation of a standard of care mechanical ventilation protocol for patients with acute brain injury in the iCentra electronic medical record system at Intermountain Medical Center. We hypothesize that implementation of a standardized neuro lung protective ventilation protocol will be feasible, will achieve a target normal partial pressure of carbon dioxide, will decrease tidal volumes toward the target 6 mL/kg predicted body weight, and will improve outcomes.
Stroke is the third common cause of adult disability in dveloped countries. Early identification of the potential for motor recovery is important to avoid 'learned disuse' and to initiate appropriate therapy with achievable goals. The current cohort study focuses on those patients with SAFE <8 and using motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to improve on prognostication of upper limb motor recovery among subacute stroke patients in a local stroke population.
This is a single arm study aimed at evaluating the acute effects induced by a single session of robot-assisted passive hand mobilization on local perfusion and upper limb function in post-stroke hemiparetic patients. Twenty-three participants with subacute or chronic stroke received 20 min passive mobilization of the paretic hand with robotic assistance. After the intervention, significant improvements were found in forearm perfusion, muscle tone significantly decreased and subjects reported decreased upper limb heaviness, stiffness and pain. This study supports novel evidence that hand robotic assistance promotes local forearm circulation, may help in the management of spasticity and acutely alleviates reported symptoms of heaviness, stiffness and pain in subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis.
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) represents an economical challenge for health systems all over the globe. Despite increasing knowledge of the pathophysiology of AIS, there is no satisfactory treatment to revert the resulting brain damage. Changes of neuroactive steroids have been found in different neurological diseases. In this regard, the investigators have previously demonstrated that old patients with AIS show changes of plasma cortisol and estradiol concentrations, in that increased steroid levels are associated with a deterioration of neurological status and a worse cognitive decline. The present study assessed in patients with AIS if changes of behavior, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nitrites (NO-2) (nitric oxide soluble metabolite) bear a relationship with the degree of hypercortisolism. To this purpose, the investigators recruited patients hospitalized at the Central Military Hospital emergency room within the first 24 hours of AIS. Subjects were divided into two groups, each one composed of 40 control subjects and 40 AIS patients, including men and women. The neurological condition was assessed using the NIHSS and the cognitive status with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA test). The emotional status was evaluated using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), whereas the Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) was used to determine the functional condition. BDNF and NO-2 plasma levels were measured by ELISA and the Griess reaction method, respectively.
This study evaluates changes in swallowing using endoscopic swallowing studies and measuring of pharyngeal sensitivity, taste and smell in stroke patients. Younger (<60 years) and older (>60 years) volunteers will serve as control.
The purpose of this study is to establish the feasibility and acceptability of a breath-based meditation in stroke survivors with post-stroke depression (PSD) and their informal caregivers, as well as to examine the effects of the breath-based meditation. The hypothesis is that the breath-based meditation will lead to decreases in the severity of symptoms of PSD, post-stroke anxiety (PSA), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and decreases in plasma IL-1 pro-inflammatory cytokines post-intervention in stroke survivors with PSD and their informal caregivers.
Stroke survivors often encounter impairments in the upper limb after stroke. Sensorimotor impairments are present in 67% of the stroke patients, resulting in problems with independency and performance of activities of daily life. In addition, the pattern of recovery in the brain is still a matter of ongoing debate. Although the importance of somatosensory function on motor performance is well described, evidence for somatosensory or sensorimotor therapy and brain-related changes is scares. Therefore, we aim to explore the effect of a sensorimotor therapy compared to pure motor therapy on motor function of the upper limb. A second objective is to investigate therapy-induced brain-behavior associations using resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the brain.
The aim of this pilot study is to collect data on stroke patients using the BrainPulse Stroke Monitor. Patient characteristics, diagnostic procedures and clinical outcomes will be documented as part of the data collected to assess the clinical utility of the BrainPulse device. All eligible patients will be enrolled and assigned to a study Group based on confirmation of their diagnosis: Acute Ischemic Stroke, Hemorrhagic Stroke, Transient Ischemic Attack or No Stroke. The data collected from the BrainPulse will be compared across the four different study groups in an attempt to distinguish stroke from other non-stroke conditions that present with similar symptoms. Further assessments will also be made to evaluate if the BrainPulse can distinguish between hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke.
The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of two different dual-task balance interventions for stroke patients and older adults.