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A number of large trials have confirmed the benefits of thrombolysis in acute stroke, but there are gender differences. We sought to examine the relationship between sex and outcome after thrombolysis. Previous reports [1-6] concerning sex-related differences in stroke management and outcome are inconsistent and sometimes difficult to interpret, and so the reasons for gender disparities in stroke outcome have remained unclear. Functional outcomes and quality of life after stroke are consistently poorer in women despite adjustment for baseline differences in age and prestroke function, and the fact that comorbidities and clinical outcomes were not different between women and men [3, 7] . Once the reasons for these differences are better understood, intervention might be possible to help provide the best care for all patients. This work is a continuation and extension of the Ebrictus Study [8-10] . Prior work has suggested sex-based differences in thrombolytic therapy in subjects with acute stroke  .The authors will explore whether sex might modify the effect of thrombolysis on survival and functional outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke  beyond the usually evaluated time period of 6 months after stroke and compared this with the group without thrombolytic treatment.
This is a single arm study aimed at evaluating the acute effects induced by a single session of robot-assisted passive hand mobilization on local perfusion and upper limb function in post-stroke hemiparetic patients. Twenty-three participants with subacute or chronic stroke received 20 min passive mobilization of the paretic hand with robotic assistance. After the intervention, significant improvements were found in forearm perfusion, muscle tone significantly decreased and subjects reported decreased upper limb heaviness, stiffness and pain. This study supports novel evidence that hand robotic assistance promotes local forearm circulation, may help in the management of spasticity and acutely alleviates reported symptoms of heaviness, stiffness and pain in subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis.
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) represents an economical challenge for health systems all over the globe. Despite increasing knowledge of the pathophysiology of AIS, there is no satisfactory treatment to revert the resulting brain damage. Changes of neuroactive steroids have been found in different neurological diseases. In this regard, the investigators have previously demonstrated that old patients with AIS show changes of plasma cortisol and estradiol concentrations, in that increased steroid levels are associated with a deterioration of neurological status and a worse cognitive decline. The present study assessed in patients with AIS if changes of behavior, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nitrites (NO-2) (nitric oxide soluble metabolite) bear a relationship with the degree of hypercortisolism. To this purpose, the investigators recruited patients hospitalized at the Central Military Hospital emergency room within the first 24 hours of AIS. Subjects were divided into two groups, each one composed of 40 control subjects and 40 AIS patients, including men and women. The neurological condition was assessed using the NIHSS and the cognitive status with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA test). The emotional status was evaluated using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), whereas the Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) was used to determine the functional condition. BDNF and NO-2 plasma levels were measured by ELISA and the Griess reaction method, respectively.
Following stroke, patients loses functions of the motor, sensory and higher brain cognitive faculties to various degrees which lead to diminished balance. It has been documented that hemiplegic or hemiparetic stroke patients presented with more posture sway, asymmetric weight distribution, impaired weight-shifting ability and decreased stability capability. There are many balance exercises and strategies; to improve balance in elderly age group population, to prevent fall prevention. But we have very few evidences of giving manual perturbation balance training in stroke patients to improve speed, balance and function. Therefore this study is taken up to examine whether the manual perturbation balance training is more effective in improving speed, balance and function in stroke patients.
The goal of this research study was to examine the immediate effects of a prototype wearable robotic stride management assist device (SMA) designed by Honda R&D® on clinical walking performance, walking energetics, gait kinematics and corticospinal excitability in individuals with stroke.
Background: Although low-fat dairy products are an integral part of a diet recommended for stroke prevention, the role of dairy fat in relation to the risk of stroke is not yet clear. Objective: Therefore the association of adipose tissue content of fatty acids, for which dairy products are a major source (12:0, 14:0, 14:1 cis-9, 15:0, 17:0, 18:1 trans-11 and 18:2 cis-9, trans-11), with incident total stroke and stroke subtypes will be investigated. Design: The study is a case-cohort study nested within the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, including all incident stroke cases and a random sample of the total cohort.The fatty acid composition of adipose tissue biopsies was determined by gas chromatography and the content of specific fatty acids was expressed as percentage of total fatty acids. Stroke cases were identified in the Danish National Patient Registry and the diagnoses were individually verified. Cox proportional hazard regression will be used to estimate the association between fatty acids and stroke.
Increased iron load could be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Red meat consumption affects iron status and has also been shown to be related to increased CVD risk. The investigators hypothesized that risk associations between red meat intake and cardiovascular disease risk can to some degree be explained by higher iron load among individuals with higher meat intake. Thus, the investigators evaluate associations between red meat consumption, iron status, and CVD risk in a large-scale population based study, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) - Heidelberg.
Robotic rehabilitation is promising to promote function in stroke patients. The assist as needed training paradigm has shown to stimulate neuroplasticity but often cannot be used because stroke patients are too impaired to actively control the robot against gravity. Aim of this study is to present a novel robotic approach based on fully assisted functional movements and to examine the effect of the intervention in terms of motor function improvement in subjects with chronic stroke in the short term and at 6-month follow up. A preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of the intervention in improving activity and participation in the short term is also performed. Further, the study aims to verify whether some instrumental measures (using kinematics, EMG and EEG) may help gain insight into the mechanisms leading to improved motor ability following the robotic intervention and can be used to predict functional recovery.
Retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients investigated in a neurorehabilitation ward after a first hemispheric stroke. Postural and gait disorders in relation to referential of verticality have been analyzed in routine care.
This study evaluates the predictors of intensive care unit admission and mortality among stroke patients and the effects of pulmonary physiotherapy on these stroke patients. One-hundred patients participated in the pulmonary rehabilitation program and 81 patients served as a control group.