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It is the purpose of this study to determine if a commercially available electronic stethoscope synchronized with an smart phone or iPad application can be used as an accurate and objective screening tool for measuring dysphagia. The investigators plan to do so in two phases; in Phase I the investigators will recruit normal subjects to establish normal swallowing patterns, as well as optimal sensor placement; and in Phase II the investigators will compare the recordings obtained by the electronic stethoscope with those obtained using videofluoroscopy.
Thousands of canines are used for therapy in health care centers throughout the United States as part of a volunteer therapy team, yet little is known about the outcomes provided by these teams. Although many studies have been published, few used randomized, controlled formats to identify whether canine therapy has an impact and any mechanisms by which any impact may occur. The purpose of this study is use a randomized, controlled setup for canine animal-assisted therapy (AAT) in patients undergoing inpatient physical therapy for stroke, Parkinson's disease, or generalized weakness deconditioning to determine whether use of AAT produces desirable outcomes, such as increased motivation, in patients.
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) affects over 700,000 Americans every year and is the leading cause of long-term disability. Early neurological deterioration after AIS typically occurs within 72 hours of stroke onset and affects 30% of all stroke patients, who have a higher rate of death or poor outcome. Several mechanisms account for early neurological deterioration, including hemorrhagic conversion, systemic illness, cerebral edema, and seizure, but the most common cause is extension of the stroke into the "penumbra," a region of salvageable brain tissue surrounding the core of irreversible ischemic infarct. The penumbra is tenuously perfused by collateral blood vessels. AIS management is primarily focused on recanalizing the occluded artery causing the stroke, but an alternative and relatively unexplored approach is optimization of collateral blood flow. Over 60% of AIS patients present with a transient acute hypertensive response, which is theorized to be the result of either increased sympathoadrenal tone, poorly controlled underlying hypertension, or an unknown stroke-specific mechanism related to augmenting cerebral perfusion through collateral blood flow. Epidemiological data suggests worse stroke outcomes are associated with extremes of sustained hypo- or hypertension, which has led to dozens of clinical trials involving over 20,000 patients to determine if pharmacologically lowering blood pressure after AIS is beneficial. The results have been persistently neutral or negative. In contrast, there have been no major clinical trials on the efficacy of using vasopressor medications to maintain or increase baseline blood pressure after AIS, despite promising preclinical data and pilot studies that showed no increase in cerebral hemorrhage or edema. The only randomized trial of vasopressor use after AIS demonstrated an improvement in clinical outcomes, but there was no difference in mean blood pressure between the control and intervention arms, suggesting the beneficial effect was not exclusively related to induced hypertension. One possibility is that the vasopressor reduced blood pressure variability, which preliminary data has shown to be detrimental after AIS, although that aspect of neurovascular coupling has not been adequately studied in the acute phase after AIS. The reliance on IV vasopressors, which are only administered in the intensive care unit, is a fundamental limitation of prior research. An alternative, but untested, approach is to use the oral vasopressor midodrine hydrochloride. We hypothesize that frequent midodrine dosing after AIS can optimize collateral blood flow and help salvage the ischemic penumbra. The objective of this study is to develop tools to quantify midodrine's effect on blood pressure and the ischemic penumbra.
Stroke is the leading cause of acquired long-term disability in adults in developed countries. Despite aggressive rehabilitation, lasting upper extremity impairment remains in the majority of stroke survivors. It is hypothesized that enhancing neuroplasticity through the combination of drug therapy and physical therapy could enhance outcomes for stroke survivors. The combination of levodopa and intensive physical therapy shows promise in enhancing the functional motor recovery of stroke patients during the sub-acute and chronic period without reported significant side effects. Robotic-aided training is a promising tool that has the potential to deliver high-intensity, task-oriented, reproducible therapy that can decrease the burden on a therapist. Since the evidence behind dopaminergic potentiation of neuroplasticity and stroke recovery is promising, it is the investigators aim to combine dopaminergic drug therapy with highly intensive robotic-assisted therapy to provide superior upper extremity functional recovery over traditional stroke rehabilitation.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and tolerability of SUN13837 and to determine whether SUN13837 improves the physical performance, relative to placebo, following an acute stroke in adult subjects.
This is a double-blind parallel arm randomized trial aimed to assess efficacy and safety of intravenous Tenecteplase compared to intravenous Alteplase in eligible patients who present with symptoms of acute ischemic stroke within 3 to 4.5 hours from onset.
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) can occur commonly in the setting of trauma or brain aneurysm. SAH accounts for 10% of all the strokes. Aneurysmal SAH accounts for 80 % of cases of non-traumatic cases of SAH, 6-8% of all strokes and 22-25% of all cerebrovascular deaths. Mortality can be 50% in the first few years of aneurysmal SAH rupture, 15% are severely disabled post SAH and only 20-35% having a moderate to good recovery it has gained lot of attention and pre-clinical and clinical trials of various agents have been tried to prevent poor outcome. The United States epidemiology data reveals the fact that 1% to 5% of adults have unruptured brain aneurysm and 30,000 people suffer from aneurysm rupture annually translating to brain aneurysm rupture every 18 minutes. Vasospasm is the most common SAH complication post 24 hours. It is the segmental or diffuse narrowing of the vessels especially the large vessels. Fifty percent of those patients who develop clinical vasospasm, progress to infarction and 15-20% will advance to disabling stroke or die of cerebral ischemia. The present treatment modalities are insufficient to prevent vasospasm. So, we need new treatment modalities to decrease the mortality and morbidity in SAH patients. The investigators hypothesize that Acetazolamide administration can prevent development of vasospasm after aneurysmal SAH.
This is a long-term safety and efficacy study of onabotulinumtoxinA in poststroke patients with upper limb spasticity.
The purpose of this study is to determine 1. whether intraoperative hypotension or hypertension is independently associated with postoperative mortality and morbidity 2. whether quality improvement interventions implemented at the University of Michigan and at Washington University: 1. decrease the extent and duration of intraoperative hypotension and hypertension. 2. are associated with decreased postoperative mortality and morbidity.
To confirm or refute recently published data regarding the reduction in post-stroke ischemic penumbra, that used SPECT/CT, using the more precise tools of PET/MRI.