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Randomized-controlled trial on the effectiveness of managing postnatal depression mothers at primary care clinics using Cognitive-behavioural therapy treatment by nurses as adjunct to management by Medical Officer as compared to Medical Officer alone
The overall goal of this project is to develop a novel transdiagnostic behavioral treatment -- social approach training -- intended to enhance positive social connections in individuals with elevated anxiety and/or depression. Social relationship impairments are pervasive and debilitating consequences of anxiety and depression. Existing treatments have some beneficial impact on social functioning; however, many people continue to have few and/or poor quality relationships following treatment, even after experiencing symptom relief. This study will evaluate the effects of social approach training on the brain systems that have been shown to be important for establishing positive connections with others. Approximately 60 individuals (ages 18-55) seeking treatment for anxiety or depression will participate in this study. Participants will be randomly assigned with equal probability to one of two versions of social approach training (5 or 10 sessions) or a waitlist (assessment only) control group. Participants will be assessed at baseline and post-treatment and compared on measures assessing brain responses to social reward (primary outcome), as well as physiological, behavioral, and emotional responses to social reward (secondary outcomes). It is hypothesized that participants assigned to social approach training will display greater increases from pre- to post-treatment in activity in brain systems that regulate the processing of social reward (e.g., striatum) relative to participants in the control group. This study will also determine whether the 5- vs. 10-session versions of the treatment program result in meaningful differences, compared to each other, in how the brain responds to social reward.
The stress-related hormone cortisol has been studied in depression for decades. However, relatively little is known about the role of cortisol in psychological features of depression. Basic research shows that cortisol modulates brain processes that are highly relevant to depression (especially the neural substrates of negative biases in learning and memory formation). However, very few studies have directly examined the effects of cortisol on neural circuitry of learning in depressed humans. In addition, the effects of cortisol on the neural substrates of learning differ for males and females. The toll of depression is especially high in women, who are roughly twice as likely as men to suffer from depression. Thus, the primary goal of this project is to investigate the effects of cortisol on the neural circuitry of learning in depressed women. A secondary goal is to investigate whether early life adversity moderates cortisol's effects on the neural circuitry of learning. Animal data suggests that early life adversity causes life-long biases toward learning in threatening conditions associated with elevated cortisol. In addition, new data from humans suggests that alterations in cortisol traditionally ascribed to depression may stem in part from early adversity rather than depression per se. Thus, this study will examine effects of cortisol on the neural circuitry of learning in depressed and healthy women with and without history of early life adversity. The study will use pharmacological manipulation of cortisol levels (compared to placebo) during measurement of brain activity at rest and during memory encoding of emotional and neutral stimuli. The study will also measure whether cortisol alters the negative biases in emotional memory often seen in depression. In doing so, the study will examine the role of cortisol in neural networks associated with emotional learning that are often implicated in depression. Medications that target cortisol receptors in the brain may be beneficial in the treatment of depression. However, this knowledge has yet to inform clinical practice, and mechanisms of action of these medications are not well understood. This project is significant because it provides the prerequisite knowledge (and develops a paradigm) that can be used in the future in the development of more effective targeted intervention strategies.
Depression is one of the most important nonmotor features of idiopathic PD（Parkinson's disease ）which may not just interfere with the motor symptoms of PD but can also cause immense personal suffering as well as decreased quality of life with increased disability and caregiver burden. However,there is little hard evidence to guide clinical treatment. Although some newer dopamine agonists also have antidepressive effect, the use of tricyclic or nontricyclic antidepressants is frequently required.However, the side-effects of these agents may also worsen some preexisting nonmotor problems in PD. Wuling powder is a Chinese medicine which is made by cultivating Xylariasp mycelium using submerged fermentation technology. Xylariasp is the fungus sclerotia which grow in termite nests. Wuling powder is mainly used to soothe nerves and anti-insomnia in clinical. The antidepressant effect of Wuling powder has been confirmed in clinical, but not in the patients of Parkinson`s disease. Therefore, the investigators design a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the antidepressant effect of Wuling powder in PD patients and its underlying mechanism.
Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in Brazil, and its treatment, namely surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or hormone therapy, has consequences and side effects that significantly affect the quality of life and associated physical and psychological factors. The practice of physical activity, in turn, may play a beneficial role in these factors, and help the recovery of the patient in relation to the consequences of the treatments. Two types of physical activity can be addressed in the context of breast cancer; Dance and the Pilates method. Thus, the objective of the present study will be to analyze the impact of Pilates practice and dance on quality of life and on psychological and physical factors in patients undergoing adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Patients older than 18 years who are in adjuvant treatment, namely, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and / or hormone therapy at the Oncology Research Center - CEPON, will be invited to be part of the study. With a randomized clinical trial of three arms, the patients will be submitted to 16 weeks of intervention, and randomized in 3 groups: (A) belly dance protocol group; (B) Pilates method protocol group, and (C) control group who will continue with their routine activities. Sample randomization will be conducted in confidence by one of the researchers in a specific computer program. Information about personal and clinical characteristics, quality of life, psychological factors (depressive symptoms, body image, self-esteem, optimism, perceived stress, fatigue, pain, sexual function and sleep quality) and physical factors (cardiorespiratory fitness, balance , Posture, upper limb functionality and presence of lymphedema). All information will be collected before and after the intervention period. Statistical analysis will use the statistical package SPSS - IBM, version 20.0. Firstly, descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation and percentage) will be used in order to know the data, and then the Anova two way test with repeated measurements and Sydak Comparison Test, in order to analyze the data. Groups of the Pilates method, of the dance and control group. Significance level of 5%.
Ketamine and dexamethasone have been known to be effective postoperative pain. Many studies also have reported these two drugs might change mood such as depression. This study aimed to investigate the effect of each drug individually with their combination on perioperative change of mood in patients undergoing gynecologic surgery
This study will determine the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a once-daily (QD) dose of up to 80 mg of BTRX-246040 for 8 weeks in participants with MDD.
Agomelatine is a melatonin drug used to treat depressive disorder. Agomelatine may also some effects on ocular pressures. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that melatonin decreases intraocular pressures when given depressive patients.
To investigate the impact of a structured eight week exercise intervention as an add-on therapy in treating Major Depressive Disorder. Using behavioural techniques and neuroimaging to measure changes in brain function following an exercise intervention in people with clinical depression. By correlating changes in the hippocampus with changes in HPA axis hormones, inflammatory cytokines and growth factors it is possible to determine which of the biochemical markers is most predictive of improved neural function.
This study assessed the potential of Health Information Technology (HIT) to improve the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of depression and post-traumatic stress among LEP Southeast Asians. Should this intervention be found to be effective, the principles of the HIT technology could be easily adapted for screening in other languages to increase the recognition and treatment of depression and PTSD in primary care settings.