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It is estimated that 30% of individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) fail to respond to conventional antidepressant medication which accounts for over 1 million Canadians in their lifetime. Treatment resistant depression (TRD) patients also have greater psychiatric and medical comorbidity, poorer quality of life and increased suicidal ideation. Yet, there are few treatment strategies available to target TRD and there is a significant lack of evidence about how TRD differs from treatment-responsive depression. This proposal represents the first study to elucidate the neurobiology of TRD with a focus on dopamine receptor function throughout the brain, in order to inform treatment development and clinical characterization of TRD.The ultimate goal of this unique study is to characterize striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 and D3 receptor binding potential in patients with TRD, non-resistant MDD and healthy controls. The primary hypothesis is that TRD patients will exhibit greater D2/D3 receptor binding potential compared to non-TRD patients in the following regions of interest: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and ventral striatum. Secondarily, non-TRD patients will also demonstrate increased binding potential compared to healthy controls in the same brain regions. Whole brain analyses will allow us to take an exploratory approach to other brain regions that may differentiate TRD from non-TRD patients. Participants will be assessed at St. Michael's Hospital (SMH) and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), which are within a 10 minute driving distance of each other. There will be 3 study visits following written informed consent. Eligibility will be confirmed at a screening visit at SMH where demographic information, including age, sex, education, and medication history will be obtained, as well as the administration of a structured Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) Axis I diagnoses (Sheehan et al, 2015), and an HRSD-17. Within two weeks of the screening visit, participants will undergo a structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan at SMH prior to the positron-emission tomography (PET) scan at CAMH. The order of the PHNO scans will be counterbalanced.
People with long term conditions such as diabetes and arthritis, and who also have depression spend a lot of time sedentary during the day. This is because they face many barriers to being active, such as pain and fatigue. Being sedentary is problematic because it is associated with poorer health in the long term. Common sedentary behaviours are watching television and using the computer; these behaviours are labelled as screen-based sedentary behaviours. An intervention to reduce these behaviours could improve mental and physical wellbeing. The aim of the study is to explore the acceptability of an intervention to "Move a Little and Often" in people with depression symptoms and long term conditions. The investigators will explore the intervention's acceptability using interviews and will examine if the intervention is associated with a reduction in time spent sedentary. Results will help refine the intervention further. The feasibility study is part of a PhD project funded by the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) Greater Manchester
The specific aims are to: 1. Pilot test a randomized controlled trial of Project PRIDE for feasibility for subsequent research projects. A sample of 123 men aged 18-25 who identify as gay, bisexual, queer, or some other non-heterosexual identity, who are HIV negative, who report at least once instance of condomless anal sex in the absence of PrEP in the past 60 days, and who report drug use at least once in the past 60 days will be recruited and randomized to one of two conditions: 1. Project PRIDE: an eight-session primary HIV-prevention intervention; or 2. Wait-list control condition: after approximately 5 months, participants will receive Project PRIDE. 2. Test the feasibility of obtaining biological measures of stress, drug use, and HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) status. To examine the impact of the intervention on stress physiology, participants will provide saliva samples that will be used to assess diurnal stress (i.e., cortisol) at pre-test, post-test, and 3-month follow-up. To substantiate self-report measures, participants will provide urine samples that will be used to assess drug use. Participants will be tested for gonorrhea, and chlamydia at each time point by providing a separate urine sample, HIV via oral swab and for syphilis by providing a blood sample. 3. It is hypothesized that, compared to the wait-list control group, those in the treatment group will report significant reductions in mental health problems (depression, anxiety. loneliness), minority stressors (internalized homonegativity, sexual orientation concealment), substance use (drug and alcohol), condomless anal sex, number of sex partners, and stress-related biomarkers (salivary cortisol). In addition, compared to the wait-list control group, those in the treatment group will report significant improvements in self-esteem.
Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide and a risk factor for other diseases. While women are at elevated risk for depression in general, the menopause transition is a particularly vulnerable time for many women, with the risk for depression increasing 2-4 fold. The objective of this research study is to determine whether mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), an 8-week structured intervention involving meditation and yoga, has any beneficial mood effects for women undergoing this vulnerable time.
A quasi-experimental study will compare primary health care-based prevention and management of alcohol use disorder, operationalized by heavy drinking, in three intervention cities from Colombia, Mexico and Peru with three comparator cities from the same countries. In the implementation cities, primary health care units (PHCUs) will receive training embedded within ongoing supportive municipal action over an 18-month implementation period. In the comparator cities, practice as usual will continue at both municipal and PHCU levels. The primary outcome will be the proportion of consulting adult patients intervened with (screened and advice given to screen positives).
This study aims to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of fMRI-targeted repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of depressive symptoms in service members with a history of concussive traumatic brain injury (TBI). Up to ninety participants will be randomized to active or sham treatment. Participants randomized into the active group will receive 20 sessions of left-sided dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLFPC) high-frequency rTMS, followed by right-sided DLFPC low-frequency rTMS. The DLPFC treatment area will be identified by using individual subject-level resting state network estimation (Hacker et al., 2013). Participants randomized into the sham treatment group will receive 20 sham treatments designed to have similar sound and tactile sensation, without producing active treatment. Participants will also be asked to complete regular follow-up evaluations for up to a total of six follow-up sessions. Those who do not respond to the treatment will have the option to receive active treatment through this study regardless of group assignment to active or sham.
Our overall objective is to assess the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of Allogeneic Bone Marrow Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) isolated from hematogenous bone marrow for treatment of treatment-resistant bipolar depression patient (TRBD).
Problem Solving Therapy for Primary Care (PST-PC) is an evidence based psychosocial intervention (EBPI) for use in primary care settings, with more than 100 clinical trials. Despite it's proven efficacy we have found that implementation of PST-PC is complicated, resulting in rapid program drift (deviation from protocol with associated loss of efficacy), among practitioners following completion of training. Many studied have shown that program drift is not uncommon in the implementation of EBPIs and can be mitigated through on-going decision support and supervision. Unfortunately, decision support and supervisors of EBPIs are not widely available in low-resourced primary care clinics. We will address this problem by creating decision support tools to be integrated into electronic health records. Because these tools hare deemed by many practitioners in other field to be burdensome, we will explicitly involve active input on the content, design and function of these support tools. Outcomes may include electronic dashboards for panel management, automated suggestions for application of PST-PC elements based on patient reported outcomes or integration of automated patient tracking, and 4) support of patient engagement. We hypothesize that enhance decision support (target mechanism) will sustained quality delivery of PST-PC, which in turn will improve patient reported outcomes.
This study will test whether seven days adjunctive administration of a serotonin receptor subtype 4 (5HT4) agonist called PF-04995274 has positive effects on emotional processing and neural activity in medicated, treatment-resistant depressed patients compared to placebo.
This study will compare training as usual to automated training using an intelligent tutoring system in training bachelors (BA) level social workers in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The purpose of the study is to determine if time and cost of training front line clinicians in evidence-based treatments can be shortened, and if this new training model can reduce the need for clinicians to seek advice from experts.