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Program ACTIVE II is a depression treatment study sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, Indiana University, Ohio University and West Virginia University. The purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness of two forms of treatment for depression for adults with type 2 diabetes: talk therapy (counseling) and exercise. Both of these forms of treatment have been proven to be effective in helping people with depression alone. In this study, the investigators will test to see if both of these approaches may be more effective in helping people live depression-free compared to talk therapy, exercise or usual care alone.
Maternal bonding was described as a qualitative change in the relationship of a mother with her infant. By this study, the investigators aimed to investigate the mother-infant bonding and the factors affecting it, from the point of the family practice, which is responsible for the healthcare of all family members from the fetus to the eldest individual in a family.
The Mindfulness Intervention as Myocardial Infarction Rehabilitation Additive (MIMIRA) study aimed at studying the feasibility and acceptability of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction - an 8 week course in meditation and yoga - in patients with a recent coronary artery event and elevated depressive symptoms. To address these questions patients with elevated scores on a depression scale were invited to participate in MBSR, and there evaluation of the course as well as a panel of psychological risk factors and resources was measured.
The design of the study is a randomized controlled trial. A total of 80 students with self-reported symptoms of stress/anxiety/depression will be invited to take part in a 3-session course consisting of either attention training or self-compassion/mindfulness based meditation. Attention training involves modifying metacognitive control and enhancing attention flexibility so that people can refrain from responding to intrusions with extended processing. Self-compassion involves not avoiding painful or distressing feelings. Instead these experiences are held in awareness with kindness, understanding, and a sense of shared humanity.
Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent and disabling conditions that frequently co-occur, and are costly to the individual and society. Despite important advances in our understanding of these disorders, there is a significant unmet need to identify reliable and clinically useful tests that can predict prognosis, inform treatment choice for a given individual, and improve treatment outcomes. The aim of this project is to fill this critical gap by validating a battery of measures including brain imaging, psychophysiology, behavior, and self-report that will reliably assess positive and negative affect, or valence, system functioning in a broad sample of individuals screened for anxiety and depression as part of their routine primary care visits.
Depressed patients unremitted after monotherapy with citalopram or bupropion will remit following six weeks treatment with the combination of citalopram and bupropion.
PRIME aims to demonstrate through neurocognitive assessment that BICU patients will have a degree of neurocognitive dysfunction following a major burn, that this neurocognitive dysfunction is due to an underlying neuroinflammatory process by fMRI neuroimaging techniques, and that the neurocognitive deficit is associated with a reduced quality of life.
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world, the most common in women, representing the leading cause of death in Brazil. The therapeutic approach for breast cancer includes surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. Chemotherapy courses with side effects because the cytotoxic effects affect indistinctly neoplastic cells and normal cells. The cancer per se may promote disruption in circadian rhythm. Chemotherapy induces or enhances desynchronization of the sleep-wake cycle, which competes with impaired memory, mood, pain and poor quality of life. Melatonin is an attractive therapeutic option in this context. This neurohormone also has immunomodulatory, co-analgesic and anti-depressant properties. Additionally, the antioxidant properties of melatonin may decrease free radical formation, reducing damage to DNA. The objective is to assess the response to melatonin as a synchronizer of the sleep-wake rhythm, neuromodulator, and mieloprotetor genoprotetor in the effects induced by chemotherapy in women with breast cancer.
The stress-related hormone cortisol has been studied in depression for decades. However, relatively little is known about the role of cortisol in psychological features of depression. Basic research shows that cortisol modulates brain processes that are highly relevant to depression (especially the neural substrates of negative biases in learning and memory formation). However, very few studies have directly examined the effects of cortisol on neural circuitry of learning in depressed humans. In addition, the effects of cortisol on the neural substrates of learning differ for males and females. The toll of depression is especially high in women, who are roughly twice as likely as men to suffer from depression. Thus, the primary goal of this project is to investigate the effects of cortisol on the neural circuitry of learning in depressed women. A secondary goal is to investigate whether early life adversity moderates cortisol's effects on the neural circuitry of learning. Animal data suggests that early life adversity causes life-long biases toward learning in threatening conditions associated with elevated cortisol. In addition, new data from humans suggests that alterations in cortisol traditionally ascribed to depression may stem in part from early adversity rather than depression per se. Thus, this study will examine effects of cortisol on the neural circuitry of learning in depressed and healthy women with and without history of early life adversity. The study will use pharmacological manipulation of cortisol levels (compared to placebo) during measurement of brain activity at rest and during memory encoding of emotional and neutral stimuli. The study will also measure whether cortisol alters the negative biases in emotional memory often seen in depression. In doing so, the study will examine the role of cortisol in neural networks associated with emotional learning that are often implicated in depression. Medications that target cortisol receptors in the brain may be beneficial in the treatment of depression. However, this knowledge has yet to inform clinical practice, and mechanisms of action of these medications are not well understood. This project is significant because it provides the prerequisite knowledge (and develops a paradigm) that can be used in the future in the development of more effective targeted intervention strategies.
Ketamine and dexamethasone have been known to be effective postoperative pain. Many studies also have reported these two drugs might change mood such as depression. This study aimed to investigate the effect of each drug individually with their combination on perioperative change of mood in patients undergoing gynecologic surgery