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Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent and disabling conditions that frequently co-occur, and are costly to the individual and society. Despite important advances in our understanding of these disorders, there is a significant unmet need to identify reliable and clinically useful tests that can predict prognosis, inform treatment choice for a given individual, and improve treatment outcomes. The aim of this project is to fill this critical gap by validating a battery of measures including brain imaging, psychophysiology, behavior, and self-report that will reliably assess positive and negative affect, or valence, system functioning in a broad sample of individuals screened for anxiety and depression as part of their routine primary care visits.
Depressed patients unremitted after monotherapy with citalopram or bupropion will remit following six weeks treatment with the combination of citalopram and bupropion.
PRIME aims to demonstrate through neurocognitive assessment that BICU patients will have a degree of neurocognitive dysfunction following a major burn, that this neurocognitive dysfunction is due to an underlying neuroinflammatory process by fMRI neuroimaging techniques, and that the neurocognitive deficit is associated with a reduced quality of life.
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world, the most common in women, representing the leading cause of death in Brazil. The therapeutic approach for breast cancer includes surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. Chemotherapy courses with side effects because the cytotoxic effects affect indistinctly neoplastic cells and normal cells. The cancer per se may promote disruption in circadian rhythm. Chemotherapy induces or enhances desynchronization of the sleep-wake cycle, which competes with impaired memory, mood, pain and poor quality of life. Melatonin is an attractive therapeutic option in this context. This neurohormone also has immunomodulatory, co-analgesic and anti-depressant properties. Additionally, the antioxidant properties of melatonin may decrease free radical formation, reducing damage to DNA. The objective is to assess the response to melatonin as a synchronizer of the sleep-wake rhythm, neuromodulator, and mieloprotetor genoprotetor in the effects induced by chemotherapy in women with breast cancer.
The stress-related hormone cortisol has been studied in depression for decades. However, relatively little is known about the role of cortisol in psychological features of depression. Basic research shows that cortisol modulates brain processes that are highly relevant to depression (especially the neural substrates of negative biases in learning and memory formation). However, very few studies have directly examined the effects of cortisol on neural circuitry of learning in depressed humans. In addition, the effects of cortisol on the neural substrates of learning differ for males and females. The toll of depression is especially high in women, who are roughly twice as likely as men to suffer from depression. Thus, the primary goal of this project is to investigate the effects of cortisol on the neural circuitry of learning in depressed women. A secondary goal is to investigate whether early life adversity moderates cortisol's effects on the neural circuitry of learning. Animal data suggests that early life adversity causes life-long biases toward learning in threatening conditions associated with elevated cortisol. In addition, new data from humans suggests that alterations in cortisol traditionally ascribed to depression may stem in part from early adversity rather than depression per se. Thus, this study will examine effects of cortisol on the neural circuitry of learning in depressed and healthy women with and without history of early life adversity. The study will use pharmacological manipulation of cortisol levels (compared to placebo) during measurement of brain activity at rest and during memory encoding of emotional and neutral stimuli. The study will also measure whether cortisol alters the negative biases in emotional memory often seen in depression. In doing so, the study will examine the role of cortisol in neural networks associated with emotional learning that are often implicated in depression. Medications that target cortisol receptors in the brain may be beneficial in the treatment of depression. However, this knowledge has yet to inform clinical practice, and mechanisms of action of these medications are not well understood. This project is significant because it provides the prerequisite knowledge (and develops a paradigm) that can be used in the future in the development of more effective targeted intervention strategies.
Ketamine and dexamethasone have been known to be effective postoperative pain. Many studies also have reported these two drugs might change mood such as depression. This study aimed to investigate the effect of each drug individually with their combination on perioperative change of mood in patients undergoing gynecologic surgery
This study assessed the potential of Health Information Technology (HIT) to improve the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of depression and post-traumatic stress among LEP Southeast Asians. Should this intervention be found to be effective, the principles of the HIT technology could be easily adapted for screening in other languages to increase the recognition and treatment of depression and PTSD in primary care settings.
The National Institutes of Mental Health has identified the use of empirically based mental health treatments (i.e., treatments with research supporting efficacy) as a priority, yet there is a shortage of clinicians trained in these approaches. This study develops an on-line therapist training program for Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT), a particularly well-researched yet particularly little disseminated, empirically based treatment, in order to facilitate wider dissemination of this approach.
The project aimed to create a dialogue between the informal sector (traditional and faith healers) and the formal sector (trained health care workers) in order to increase synergy and communication between the two systems, by minimizing any harmful practices and enhancing complementary practices. The informal sector will also be trained on how to use WHO mhGAP-IG component on depression for routine screening in order to ameliorate functional and social outcomes and refer complicated cases to the formal sector for biological interventions
the aim of this study is to assess whether increased ferritin after intravenous iron therapy will lead to increased prevalence of major depression among treated patients.