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The use of tools is ubiquitous in our lives and allows us to expand the sensorimotor capacities of our body. Much research has been done on the subject in sighted people over the past decades. This work has mainly focused on the motor aspect of using the tool, neglecting the sensory aspect. However, any action involving a tool carries sensory information, for example in the use of the white cane by blind people. 26% (> 200,000) of blind people in France use a white cane to get around. By sweeping the cane on the ground, they use it as a sensorimotor extension of their body to extract information from the environment in order to locate a pedestrian crossing or possible obstacles. While it is well established that the tools increase the user's motor skills, we have only just begun to clarify how they also function as sensory extensions of the user's body and how this phenomenon is potentially dependent on constant use of the tool to compensate for a missing sense, as is the case with blind people using a cane. The aim of this study is to fill this important gap in our knowledge.
Virtual reality systems or simulators are more and more frequently used in the field of learning but also in motor rehabilitation. One of the key points of the success of these systems is the experience of "presence" which is associated with the capacity of these technologies to develop in the observer, who is static, the sensation of moving in the virtual environment (vection). However, the simulation generates a sensory conflict (an optical flow specifying self-motion and vestibular stimuli specifying body immobility). This conflict influences the temporal characteristics of the vection and consequently modifies the way users act in their virtual environment. Thus, contrary to a real situation, vection does not occur instantaneously with the appearance of a visual movement. Moreover, the visual stimulus often generates alternating periods of perception of movement of the environment and of oneself (bistable perception) which can lead to "simulator sickness", a disabling situation for the user. Thus, as vection is an essential element to allow an "optimal transfer of learning" from the simulator to reality, it may be important to promote its emergence while limiting its bistability. The aim of this project is to study the inhibitory or facilitative modulation of the emergence of the vection phenomenon by the use of non-invasive cortical stimulation techniques (transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), transcranial alternative current stimulation (tACS), and repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)).
Gas evacuated per anus originates by-and-large in the colon, where unabsorbed meal residues are fermented by colonic bacteria. Within subjects, gas output varies in relation to the diet. However, there is a great interindividual variability: gas evacuation in subjects maintained on a similar diet may differ substantially, and this depends on the composition and metabolic pathways of the colonic microbiota. Hence, the volume of gas production and anal evacuation is determined by two main factors: the diet, particularly the amount of fermentable residues, and the individual composition of colonic microbiota. A series of recent studies suggest that some non-absorbable, fermentable meal products (prebiotics) serve as substrate to colonic bacteria and change their composition, thereby producing beneficial effects to the host. These products are fermented by bacteria and at initial intake increase gas production and may induce gas-related symptoms. However, after 7-10 days administration some prebiotics induce an adaptation of intestinal microbiota towards more efficient metabolic pathways with less gas production and the initial symptoms disappear. Some data suggest that phenolic compounds have prebiòtic properties. Aim of the study: to explore the prebiotic effect of a combination of two polyphenol-rich berry extracts (cranberry and chokeberry). Design: single-centre, single arm, open label, proof-of-concept study in healthy subjects. Intervention: a combination of a polyphenol rich extract of chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) and a polyphenol rich extract of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) will be administered for 18 days. Outcomes: during 2 days immediately before, at the beginning and at the end of the administration phase participants will be put on a standard diet and the following outcomes will be measured: a) number of gas evacuations during daytime for 2 days by means of an event marker; b) perception of digestive sensations by daily scales; c) microbiota composition by fecal analysis; d) metabolites in urine.
The purpose of this study is to assess the pharmacokinetic (PK), metabolism, and routes of excretion of aticaprant and its metabolites in excreta and in plasma after a single oral dose 14C-aticaprant in healthy adult male participants.
Some components of the diet are not absorbed in the small intestine and pass into the colon, where they may be fermented by the microbiota, releasing gas. A series of recent studies suggest that some non-absorbable, fermentable meal products (prebiotics) serve as substrate to colonic bacteria and change their composition, thereby producing beneficial effects to the host. These products are fermented by bacteria and at initial intake increase gas production; however, after 7-10 days administration some prebiotics induce an adaptation of intestinal microbiota towards more efficient metabolic pathways with less gas production. Hence, intestinal gas production may serve as an index of microbiota metabolic activity. Gas production may induce gas-related symptoms, such as flatulence, abdominal bloating and distention, and the symptoms improve when the microbiota adapts to the prebiotic and gas production declines. Guar gum is classified as a fiber, but it remains uncertain whether and to what extent it is fermented by colonic microbiota and whether it has prebiotic properties. Aim: to determine the metabolic reaction of intestinal microbiota in response to guar gum consumption, specifically, the extent of initial fermentation and subsequent adaptation.Design: Single-centre, single arm, open label, proof-of-concept study testing the effect of guar gum on microbiota metabolism and adaptation in healthy subjects Intervention: guar gum (8 g/d) will be administered for 18 days. Outcomes: during 4 days immediately before, at the beginning and at the end of the administration phase participants will be put on a standard diet and the following outcomes will be measured: a) number of gas evacuations during daytime for 2 days by means of an event marker; b) perception of digestive sensations by daily scales; c) microbiota composition by fecal analysis; d) metabolites in urine.
Cancer produces a significant burden on society with a majority diagnosed at late stages when the chance of cure is low. Early diagnosis improves patient outcomes. Data consisting of lifestyle factors, medications, physical activity, years before conventional cancer diagnosis is also worthwhile for to determine early detection. This is only achievable with longitudinal tracking of a large number of healthy individuals and identifying those who do develop cancer over time.
A Randomized, Open-label, Single Oral Dosing, Two-sequence, and Four-period Crossover Study to Evaluate the Pharmacokinetics and Safety Between the Administration of DWJ1525 and the Co-administration of DWP16001 and DWC202101 for Healthy Subjects in Fed and Fasted State
An Open-Label, Randomized, Single-Dose Crossover Study to Compare the Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability Between Fixed-Dose Combination of HCP1904 and Co-Administration of RLD2001-2 and RLD2006 Tablets in Healthy Subjects
An open-label, multiple-dosing, two-arms, one-sequence study to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics after co-administration of UIC201601 and UIC201602 in healthy male volunteers.
Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive hemp derivative, is an attractive therapeutic target, and is most supported by the scientific community as an antiepileptic, anxiolytic, and antipsychotic. Additionally, CBD may cause alterations in aspects of health and fitness, fatigue, stress, calmness, quality of life, cognitive function, ability to maintain focus, sleep quantity, and sleep quality. Cannabidiol may be associated with alterations in inflammatory response in the human body, which has implications in both healthy and diseased populations. Natural killers cells (NKC) play a vital role in maintain your body's defenses and are an essential component of your immune system. In humans, NKC contain the highest concentrations of receptors associated with the endocannabinoid system and CBD. Human models have demonstrated that CBD use increases the percentage of NKC in peripheral blood. However, similar models found that CBD administration inhibits markers of NKC cytotoxic function, a beneficial cellular mechanism used to prevent malignant cell transformation and viral infection. The overarching goal of this investigation is to determine the effects of an 8-week CBD intervention on measures of fatigue, stress, calmness, quality of life, cognitive function, focus, health and fitness, and sleep quantity, and sleep quality. In addition, this study will explore a potential CBD mechanism of action with a focus on biomarkers of neural health, inflammation, liver health, kidney health, as well as NKC number and function.