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Older adults with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) may represent a portion of the population experiencing early sings of cognitive decline. Systolic hypertension is a major contributor to cognitive impairment. High-intensity aerobic interval training (HIT) yields greater fitness and vascular health improvements compared to moderate-intensity aerobic continuous training (MCT). No randomized controlled trials, however, have investigated the effects HIT or MCT on cognition in older adults with hypertension and SCD. Much less is known regarding whether combining HIT or MCT with mind-motor training would culminate additive benefits to cognition. Therefore, the overarching goal of our research is to deliver a group-based exercise program combining mind-motor training with HIT or MCT to older adults with hypertension and SCD. Participants will be randomized into two groups. Participants in both groups will receive 15 minutes of square stepping exercise (SSE) followed by either 45 minutes of HIT (N=70) or 45 minutes of MCT (N=70). In total, both groups will exercise 60 min/day, 3 days/week for 6 months. The effects of both interventions will be evaluated on systolic and diastolic office/ambulatory blood pressure and global and domain-specific cognitive functioning.
This study evaluates the impact of a large-scale, national expansion of Medicaid on hypertension incidence, screening, treatment, and management. Social Determinants of Health will be assessed as moderators, and comparing states that did versus states that did not expand Medicaid will also be evaluated.
The major findings from the study are that 12-weeks of Taekwondo training reduced the elevated blood catecholamine levels and arterial stiffness in post-menopausal women with stage-2 hypertension. In addition, we found that Taekwondo training was able to reduce resting heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Furthermore, Taekwondo training was able to increase both hand grip and leg strength, which have been shown to be negatively correlated with cardiovascular risks. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the beneficial effects of Taekwondo as a therapeutic exercise modality to improve cardiovascular health and muscular strength in post-menopausal women with stage-2 hypertension.
"STRENGTHS" is a transdisciplinary implementation research study, guided by the PRECEDE-PROCEED framework, to address the challenge of improving hypertension control in low-resource settings. The investigators propose to test the hypothesis that referral networks strengthened by an integrated health information technology (HIT) and peer support (PS) intervention will be effective and cost-effective in improving hypertension control among patients in western Kenya. The investigators hypothesise that the integrated HIT-PS intervention will facilitate seamless referral of hypertensive patients across the different levels of the health system compared to usual care, leading to improvement in blood pressure. If proven to be successful, STRENGTHS can serve as a model for improving referral of patients upstream and downstream in health systems worldwide.
Health authorities recommend a reduction in added sugars from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) due to risk of obesity and diabetes. As a sugar-reduction strategy, finding the ideal SSB replacement is of utmost importance. Those who are already consuming SSBs might not easily replace it with water and therefore non-nutritive sweetened beverages (NSBs) present a sweetened alternative though guidelines recommend water instead of NSBs as a replacement for SSBs. Recent evidence suggests that saccharine , a non-nutritive sweetener, which is not found in NSBs, might induce glucose intolerance by altering gut microbiota in humans. It is currently not known if replacing SSBs with NSBs (which contain low-calorie sweeteners other than saccharine) or water will have any effect on the human gut microbiota and any downstream diabetic risk. The investigators plan to undertake a randomized controlled cross-over trial in 75 healthy adults to assess the effect of replacing SSBs with equal amounts of NSBs or water for 4 weeks on the composition and diversity of human gut microbiota, changes in glucose tolerance and total body fat in those who regularly drink SSBs. Each participant will act as their own control receiving each of the three interventions of SSB, NSB and water for four weeks in random order, each period separated by a four-week wash-out period. All study visits will occur at the Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Centre at St. Michael's Hospital. This study will contribute to knowledge that will inform dietary guidelines and public policy with regards to the best possible replacement for SSBs. It will also shed light on the potential mechanism of the adverse effects of NSBs and if the replacement of SSBs by NSBs or water are in fact similar with respect to their effect on gut bacteria and any downstream diabetic risk.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease that affects up to 35% of very low birth weight infants (VLBW < 1500 g). Based on the current numbers of VLBW infants born annually in the U.S., between 5,000-10,000 neonates will develop BPD each year. It is estimated that 8-42% of infants with BPD will develop pulmonary hypertension (PH). Moreover, it has been known since the 1980's that echocardiographic evidence of PH in infants with BPD is associated with up to 40% mortality. Treatment options to ameliorate PH in infants with BPD (BPD-PH) are limited. There have been no randomized clinical trials of any therapy in infants with BPD-PH. The standard care for the management of BPD-PH is to attempt to resolve the underlying lung disorder and the judicious use of oxygen as a potent pulmonary vasodilator. Using this management approach, which has not changed since the 1980's, the survival rates for infants with BPD-PH in the 2000's has been reported to be 64% at 6 months and 53% at 2 years after diagnosis of PH. The lack of improvement in outcomes for the past 3 decades has led to the widespread agreement that novel and effective therapies are desperately needed for infants with BPD-PH. The goal is to develop oral L-citrulline clinically for the treatment of pediatric pulmonary hypertension associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD-PH); before pursuing a large scale treatment trial, pharmacokinetic (PK) dose-finding, tolerability studies in patients at high risk of developing BPD-PH are warranted. The hypothesis is that oral L-citrulline will be well tolerated, without significant adverse effects in infants at high risk of developing pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with BPD. The investigators propose to first characterize the PK profile of oral L-citrulline in order to define an appropriate dose range and treatment interval for infants at high risk of developing BPD-PH. Then using the doses and intervals generated by the PK profile, with a maximum dose of 3 g/kg/d, the investigators propose to evaluate the tolerability and ability to achieve the target study drug level (100-150 micromolar) in babies treated for 72 hours with oral L-citrulline. These studies will provide the data needed to design a full-scale randomized multi-center trial to evaluate the efficacy of oral L-citrulline therapy to ameliorate BPD-PH in human infants, a patient population that has a desperate need of new therapies.
To review the accuracy of electrocardiography in screening for left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with hypertension.
This study will investigate the effects of curcumin on the structure/function of the body by investigating whether targeted improvement of intestinal barrier function by supplementation with oral curcumin will result in attenuation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) translocation and/or intestinal inflammation.
Phase 2 study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intermittent levosimendan compared with placebo in hemodynamic improvement with exercise in PH-HFpEF subjects
The purpose of the study is to show the blood pressure lowering effect of aprocitentan, a new drug, when added to other anti-hypertensive drugs of patients with difficult to control (resistant) high blood pressure (hypertension), and to show that blood pressure reduction is kept for long period of time.