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This study evaluates the impact of a solar lighting system on kerosene lamp use, levels of indoor air pollution, and health in women living in rural Uganda. Half of the participants will receive the lighting systems immediately, while the other half will receive them after an 18 month delay.
Pediatric hypertension is increasingly common and is a precursor for adult cardiovascular and renal disease. But even during childhood, hypertension is associated with significant morbidity, including cognitive impairment and organ damage. However, the cause of pediatric hypertension, the response to treatment, and the mechanisms behind organ damage are incompletely understood. Due to these limitations, there are no first-line medications, and treatment is often inadequate. An improved comprehension of the course of pediatric hypertension could enhance clinical care. The goal of this proposal is to create a registry of patients with hypertension to better enable research into this important disease. This patient registry will enhance the investigators ability to quickly collect and analyze data for research studies.
Glaucoma is one of the most prevalent eye diseases and the second most common cause of blindness worldwide. The most common form is primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Glaucoma is a slowly progressing neuropathy of the optic nerve that causes loss of visual field and eventually blindness. Elevated intra-ocular pressure (IOP) is the most important risk factor. Corticosteroids, which are often used for the treatment of many diseases in ophthalmology and other specialities, may cause an elevation of the IOP. It is estimated that corticosteroids induce ocular hypertension in approximately 18%-36% of the general population and in patients with POAG this percentage can be as high as 92%. When the treatment is sustained, this can cause a glaucomatous neuropathy of the optic nerve (corticosteroid-induced glaucoma). The precise pathogenic mechanism isn't clear yet. Genetic factors are likely to affect the susceptibility to corticosteroid response. Therefore, an overview of the genetic mechanisms of corticosteroid-induced glaucoma can give more insight in the pathogenesis. In this study the researchers investigate the occurrence of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in 150 cases with a steroid-response in comparison with 300 controls exposed to corticosteroids without a steroid-response. Up to now, one small GWAS has been conducted comparing 32 patients with and without corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension after treatment with intravitreal triamcinolone. In this study, two SNPs proximal of the transcriptional start site (near the 5') of HCG22 on chromosome 6 were identified. However, this is a rather small sample population and the investigators didn't match for the underlying disease. Further, in another small study, Hogewind et al. performed SNP analysis in multiple genes (SFRS3, FKBP4, FKBP5, and NR3C1) in corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension. This study enables the investigators to identify patients at risk for developing corticosteroid-induced glaucoma and to gain a better insight in the pathogenesis. This may also lead to the discovery of biomarkers that indicate an increased risk of developing a steroid-induced glaucoma and new prevention and treatment strategies, which are necessary as the treatment of corticosteroid induced-glaucoma now only focuses at lowering the IOP and can still be challenging.
Background: The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) was initiated by the U.S Public Health Service in 1948 and turned over to the newly established National Heart Institute in 1951. The FHS is now jointly led by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Boston University. The FHS currently studies risk factors, and the genetics of heart and blood vessel disease, and other health conditions in three generations of study participants. Scientists want to use the data collected from this study to do more research. They want to use a technique that determines the sequence of ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules. Objective: To study genes related to certain diseases and health conditions. These include heart and blood vessel diseases, lung and blood diseases, stroke, memory loss, and cancer. Eligibility: People in the FHS Third Generation cohort who already attended exam 2. Design: Researchers will study samples that have already been collected in the FHS. There will be no active examination or burden to participants. During FHS visits, participants gave blood samples. They gave permission for the blood to be used for genetic research. RNA will be generated from the samples. They will be given a new ID separate from any personal data. They will be stored in a secure FHS lab. The samples will be analyzed. Only certified researchers can access them. No study participants will be contacted in relation to this project.
General objective: To assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic syndrome among older adults in Karaj city, Alborz province in Iran. A two-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted by recruiting participants. Inclusion Criteria: Food insecure, metabolic syndrome; Vitamin D deficiency Exclusion Criteria: those who are already taking any type of vitamin D supplements, Individuals with a history of allergy, Those subjects with serious medical condition such as cancer, heart attack, stroke, and etc., Intervention group: The intervention will start from 10 of May 2017 to 11 of July 2017 for 2 months. The intervention group will receive 50,000 U vitamin D3 per week (equivalent to 1,250 μg) for 8 weeks plus pamphlets and brochures about nutrition and health at the beginning of the study. Control group: The respondents in control group will receive placebo plus brochures and pamphlets related to nutrition and health at the beginning of the study. The data collection process will identify the older adults for both groups; intervention and control. Consent will be obtained from those who are eligible. Anthropometric measurement (height, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference), blood pressure measurement, blood taking and three-day food record will be obtained during baseline from all study respondents in the intervention and control groups. Primary Output: Achieving 25 (OH) D upper than insufficient serum 25(OH) D level >30 ng/l. Secondary Output: Reduction anthropometry (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), Improved Biomarkers indicators (lipid profile, fasting blood fast), improved blood pressure before and after intervention.
This study evaluates the effect of a mobile health technology enabled trained nurse led intervention on control of blood pressure among patients with hypertension seeking care in the community health centres in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh, India. half the community health centres will receive the intervention and the other half will receive the routine care.
Autonomic and endothelial imbalance in post menopause women raise the need to manage cardiovascular risk. Yoga poses and breathing control present controversial results on prevention and treatment of hypertension.. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of 12 week intervention based on yoga poses and their muscle contractions known as bandhas (pelvic floor, core and throat/neck) and ujjayi pranayama (victorious breath) on autonomic modulation, endothelial function, arterial stiffness, aerobic capacity and cognitive function of hypertensive post-menopausal women.
The purpose of this study is to determine if high salt diet contributes to high nighttime blood pressure. The investigators will determine if high compared to low salt diet increases 24-hour blood pressure levels. The investigators will also determine if high salt diet affects blood vessel stiffness, cardiac output, and sleep apnea. The study will also determine how high salt diet affects the activity of certain genes related to control of blood pressure. A total of 60 participants will be enrolled in the study.
Survivors of childhood cancer are known to be at higher risk of developing premature, serious cardiovascular disease compared with the general population. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes increase this risk beyond that attributable to one's original cancer therapy exposures. Research has shown that childhood cancer survivors also have a high burden of underdiagnosis and undertreatment of these potentially modifiable conditions. The goal of this study is to: 1. To determine the prevalence of underdiagnosis and undertreatment of common cardiometabolic conditions (i.e., hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes) in survivors of childhood cancer at high-risk of future serious cardiovascular disease. 2. Among survivors who are found to be underdiagnosed or undertreated, to determine (via randomized clinical trial) the efficacy of an educational intervention to improve control of these cardiometabolic conditions. 3. Determine barriers on among survivors enrolled on the randomized trial and their primary healthcare providers that contribute to undertreatment of the study's targeted cardiometabolic conditions.
Sleep apnea is a common and serious health problem in the Polish population. According to epidemiological data problem concerns about 7% of the adult population. The most common sleep disorder is obstructive sleep apnea (OBS). The consequence of episodes of airway obstruction and sleep fragmentation is an inefficient, lack of rest sleep, pathological daytime sleepiness, falling asleep involuntarily, awakening with feelings of shortness of breath or throttling. The direct consequences of sleep apnea are hypoxia, awakening, increased heart rate and increased blood pressure. Frequent complications of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are hypertension, stroke, cardiac arrhythmia, coronary artery disease, pulmonary hypertension and heart failure. An additional problem in patients with sleep apnea is an increased incidence of bruxism. It is one of the most common oral parafunctions. Bruxism is a common problem; reports of prevalence range from 8-31% in the general population. The most common symptoms of bruxism include: hypersensitive teeth, tooth wear, damage to dental restorations (e.g. crowns and fillings), damage to periodontal and oral mucosa, masticatory muscle pain and headaches. The etiology of bruxism is multifactorial and not fully understood. It can be caused by local and general factors. The main general factors may be stress, emotional disturbances and mental, neurological, hormonal disorders (eg. Hyperthyroidism), gastrointestinal disease, allergies, medications, smoking, sleep disorders and snoring. Arousals during the apnea episodes are considered to be a major cause of sleep bruxism. The relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and sleep bruxism is still not clearly defined. Further research is needed to help explain the relationship between these two phenomena, which will enable further therapy in patients with coexisting OSA and sleep bruxism (SB).