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Investigators aim to study efficiency of systemic thrombolytic therapy on acute ischemic stroke patients with near infrared spectroscopy.
DISPLACE is a three part, multi-center U.S. based study to evaluate the barriers to stroke screening and prevention in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). In the United States, TCD (Transcranial Doppler ultrasound) is a proven method of screening children with SCA for stroke. However, many children are not getting the screening they need. This study will examine the issues that hinder and help children get the screening at 28 different hospitals and sickle cell centers to improve care for all children with sickle cell anemia. The investigators will then plan a study (part 3) aimed to improve stroke screening and prevention in sickle cell anemia.
The primary goal of the PRAISE study is to develop a diagnostic algorithm that allows the prediction of acute coronary syndrome in stroke patients with elevated levels of cardiac troponin.
Information regarding the likely progress of post-stroke symptoms is vitally important to stroke survivors to allow them to plan for the future and to adjust to life after stroke. Moreover, the prevalence of morbidity secondary to stroke is of central importance to Health Professionals to understand the prognosis of the disease in the patients under their care. Additionally, it will also allow commissioners of care, planners and third sector organisations to adapt to and answer the needs of a post-stroke population. Currently, the data collected by national audit programmes are concentrated on what can be termed 'process or process of care' data. The utility of these data are in the ability to audit the care received by stroke survivors on stroke units against evidenced standards for care, thus ensuring evidence based practice. Nevertheless, process of care is only one form of measuring stroke unit care and the audit programmes collect some limited functional status data, data relating to risk-factor co-morbidities and treatment received data. Therefore, the scope of this study is to build on the minimum data set currently collected and to collect post-stroke data in domains not currently collected. The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) takes important steps to collect data outside of process of care data such as a Patient Reported outcome data in their minimum outcome data set for stroke [currently under review].. Nevertheless, the ICHOM doesn't currently advocate the specific collection of data relating to cognitive impairment or emotional problems secondary to stroke. It is in these important aspects that this study will augment the data set currently advocated by ICHOM to collect data in the areas of cognitive impairment and emotional problems secondary to stroke. Therefore, the aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence of morbidity at six months post-stroke.
The goal of this study is to develop a large longitudinal cohort of individuals diagnosed with or at high risk for brain diseases (both neurological and psychiatric in nature), in order to identify risk factors that contribute to neurological and psychiatric diseases over time. The investigators seek to capture relevant information from medical records, electronically administered questionnaires and follow up phone-based interviews. The investigators expect to eventually have sufficient power from our dataset to examine risk factors for a variety of brain disorders, both individually and in aggregate. Our ultimate goal is to offer scientifically validated ways to preserve and promote brain health by working with our patients' needs and tracking their progress over time.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been found to be very common in stroke patients. Obstructive sleep apnea has been found to impede stroke rehabilitation and recovery. However, currently, there are few treatment options for OSA in stroke patients. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the current therapy commonly used for OSA in the general population, however stroke patients are not highly compliant with this device. Therefore, we have decided to propose a more feasible alternative to treating obstructive sleep apnea through positional therapy. Positional therapy involves using a device to prevent patients from sleeping on their backs, since this position has been found to exacerbate obstructive sleep apnea. Therefore, we hypothesize that stroke patients who use the positional therapy belt will experience improvements in the severity of OSA.
Intravenous thrombolysis is considered as the first choice for ischemic stroke. In the recent years, endovascular therapy is demonstrated to be effective to treat ischemic with big vessel occlusion. However, only a minority of patients can get intravenous thrombolysis or endovascular therapy due to the restricted time window and strict indications. Dual antiplatelet has been demonstrated to be effective in the patients with high risk of TIA or minor ischemic stroke (NIHSS<4). But there is still stroke progression although dual antiplatelet. The ischemic stroke patients with NIHSS > 3 has been recommended to give aspirin in most guidelines. Of those patients, mild to moderate stroke patients (3<NIHSS<10) will result in the poor outcomes if the progression occurs. In addition, large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) stroke is prone to progress. So, we argue that the mild to moderate stroke with LAA should be give more intensive antiplatelet. In the present study, argatroban combined with antiplatelet therapy (3-5 days) is used to treat the proposed patients to investigate the safety and effectiveness.
For this project the investigators ask, how the activation and organization of muscle synergies may be disrupted by brain lesions, and whether it is possible to modify synergy activations by means of specific therapies. Will be investigated whether there is a relationship between post-stroke cortical plasticity and changes in synergy activations due to a therapy.
Recent global burden of disease analysis of DALYs, showed that dietary risk have the highest DALYs in ischemic stroke among behavioral risk factors. The MediDiet is associated with a decreased risk of total mortality as well as stroke incidence and mortality. Although not part of the classical Mediterranean diet they are another nutrient-dense source of MUFA, rich in vitamins, minerals, fiber, phytosterols and polyphenols extensively consumed in the Americas. Avocado-substituted diets significantly decrease cholesterol levels in diabetic and obese patients. Secondary stroke prevention studies with diet as an intervention are lacking and there is little information of what patients eat before or after an ischemic stroke. Lowering Low Density Cholesterol (LDL-C) levels decreases stroke recurrence. The aim is to determine the effect of a Mediterranean style diet based on Avocados on lipid profile particularly LDL-C in patients who have had an ischemic stroke and are at high recurrence risk.Methodology: Academic, open-label, blinded outcome assessment (PROBE design), clinical trial. Participants will be patients with an acute ischemic stroke admitted to Clínica Alemana de Santiago, who fulfills the eligibility criteria. Eligible patients will be randomly assigned to either diet intervention in a 1:1 ratio. The interventions will be: A) Avocado based Mediterranean diet with intake of ½ portion of a Hass avocado per day and B) Standard recommendation of low fat-high complex carbohydrate diet recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program and the American Heart Association. The main efficacy outcome will be the level of plasma LDL-C level at 3 months of the dietary intervention. Secondary outcomes will be changes in: Levels of serum lipid profile, serum inflammation markers, glycemic control, anthropomorphic measures, stroke recurrence, cardiovascular events, adverse events, compliance. A sample size of 100 patients per group (200 in total) was estimated to provide 80% power and 5% level of significance with 10% loss and 5% crossover to detect the same difference in LDL-C after 3 months of intervention in patients with acute stroke. The investigators hypothesize that an Avocado based Mediterranean diet will significantly reduce levels of LDL-cholesterol at 3 months in patients who have suffered a recent acute ischemic stroke compared to the standard diet.
Apathy is a syndrome of reduced motivation, characterized by diminished goal-directed behaviours (e.g., lack of effort), decreased goal-oriented cognitions (e.g., lack of interest) and blunted affect. Apathy is present in 20-50% of individuals after experiencing a stroke. Despite the detrimental impact of reduced goal-directed behaviours and cognitions on activities of daily living and cognition in stroke patients, interventions for increasing motivation (reducing apathy) have yet to be examined in this population. This study will examine the effect of goal-setting instructions on cognitive performance in stroke patients. The investigators hypothesize that in stroke patients, goal-setting instructions will improve cognitive performance relative to standard instructions. If goal-setting instructions are effective in improving cognitive performance, it may indicate that treatments targeting apathy could serve as a novel way to improve cognitive outcomes and enhance patient quality of life post-stroke.