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Combat Veterans of post-9/11 conflicts have experienced serious cognitive and emotional problems resulting from exposure to blasts. Recent work suggests that a critical factor influencing the consequences of blast exposure is distance from the blast, rather than the presence or absence of concussion symptoms. Exposure to blasts from a distance of <10 m has been associated with significantly greater cognitive and neural problems than exposure to blasts from >10 m. So far, the effects of blast-related brain injury on the brain are poorly understood, as to date the effects of blast exposure have received little research focus. The investigators propose to use oscillations in the gamma band (30-100 Hz) of the electroencephalogram (EEG; brain waves) to detect and remediate neural circuit dysfunction related to blast injury in Veterans. If successful, this project could lead to new approaches to detect and remediate the effects of blast exposure on Veterans and aid in their functional recovery.
A longitudinal study evaluating the predictive ability of near infrared spectroscopy to predict brain injury in infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Data will be analyzed at two different time periods, at discharge and again at 2 years of age.
Severe acute brain injury (SABI), including large artery acute ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and severe traumatic brain injury continue to be the leading cause of death and disability in adults in the U.S. Due to concerns for a poor long-term quality of life, withdrawal of mechanical ventilation and supportive medical care with transition to comfort care is the most common cause of death in SABI, but occurs at a highly variable rate (for example in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) 45-89%). Decision aids (DAs) are shared decision-making tools which have been successfully implemented and validated for many other diseases to assist difficult decision making. The investigators have developed a pilot DA for goals-of-care decisions for surrogates of SABI patients. This was developed through qualitative research using semi-structured interviews in surrogate decision makers of TBI patients and physicians. The investigators now propose to pilot-test a DA for surrogates of SABI patients in a feasibility trial.
The recovery of walking ability is one of the primary rehabilitation goals for children with neurological impairment. The aim of the study is to investigate the clinical effectiveness of rehabilitation treatments based of Robotic-Assisted Gait Training (RAGT). Additional goals of the research are to identify the specific effects of RAGT in children with different etiologies (acquired brain injury and cerebral palsy) and with different levels of function (according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System).
Transcranial Doppler is a noninvasive tool. Using velocity measurements and pulsatility index it allows the evaluation of cerebral haemodynamics. In patients presenting brain injury cerebral perfusion may be impaired. Indirect cerebral blood flow can be monitored and risk of neurological worsening can be detected using transcranial Doppler. Education and performance of emergency physicians must be evaluated on brain-injured patients because this tool is operator dependent. The main objective of this study is to estimate the average number of exams required to learn transcranial Doppler within junior emergency physicians with the achievement of their learning curve. We will perform a prospective, monocentric, observational study within the neurosurgical resuscitation department of the University hospital of Grenoble Alps.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a common cause of morbidity in combat veterans, but current treatments are often inadequate. Reconsolidation of Traumatic Memories (RTM) is a novel treatment that seeks to alter key aspects of the target memory (e.g., color, clarity, speed, distance, perspective) to make it less impactful, and reduce nightmares, flashbacks, and other features of PTSD. The memory is reviewed in the context of an imaginal movie theater, presenting a fast (~45 sec) black and white movie of the trauma memory, with further adjustment as needed so the patient can comfortably watch it. Open and waitlist studies of RTM have reported high response rates and rapid remission, setting the stage for this randomized, controlled, single-blind trial comparing RTM versus prolonged exposure (PE), the PTSD therapy with the strongest current evidence base. The investigators hypothesize that RTM will be non-inferior to PE in reducing PTSD symptom severity post-treatment and at 1-year follow up; will achieve faster remission, with fewer dropouts; will improve cognitive function; and that epigenetic markers will correlate with treatment response. The investigators will randomize 108 active or retired service members (SMs) with PTSD to ≤10 sessions of RTM or PE, affording power to test our hypotheses while allowing for ≤ 25% dropouts. The investigators will use an intent to treat analysis, and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, or DSM5 (CAPS-5), conducted by blinded assessors, will be the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures of depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), sleep (PSQI), and functional status (WHOQOL-100), will be assessed pre- and post-treatment, and at 2, 6, and 12 months. ANOVA will compare symptom severity over time within and between groups. Blood draws will be obtained pre- and posttreatment to assess predictors of treatment response and epigenetic markers of change. The NIH Toolbox Neurocognitive Assessment, pre- and post-treatment, will assess impact on cognitive function. The investigators will track comorbid TBI, anticipating it will not adversely impact response. More palatable and effective therapies for PTSD, with and without TBI, must be developed and evaluated. RTM is safe and promising, but requires testing against evidence-based interventions in well-designed randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Demonstrating corresponding biomarker and neurocognitive improvements will corroborate results, and may facilitate more tailored treatment approaches in the future.
The objective of the proposed research is to evaluate adult subjects currently taking phytocannabinoid Hemp-derived botanical supplements (HDS) during recovery from traumatic brain injury. This study seeks to answer whether subjects taking HDS formulations experience relief from self-reported symptoms or improved subjective well-being, sleep quality, cognitive benefits, side effects and/or quantifiable changes in brain state neuronal activity or stress biomarkers. We seek to answer whether regular users (once/week to multiple uses/day) of HDS experience signs of dependence, addiction or physiological withdrawal. To accomplish this we will use survey questions, quantitative EEG, cognitive testing and salivary biomarkers to determine the effectiveness of self-initiated HDS administration. In addition, we are interested in whether our objective measures allow us to understand why some people are responders to HDS health benefits while others are not.
Pilot study where 10 alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD) patients will undergo a 30-minutes-long cognitive assessment session using the Validation Gate task to evaluate usability of this tool in Alcohol Use Disorder patients. Resting-state EEG of ARBD patients will also be recorded and compared to the ones of age-matched healthy people in order to preliminary explore the existence of possible EEG biomarkers of ARBD.
Pupillar diameter variation to predict success or failure of external ventricular derivation clamping. Pupillometry utilisation as a diagnostic tool in external ventricular clamping test in neurological ICU should improve patients care in several ways : - earlier use of ventriculo-peritoneal or ventriculo-atrial shunts to shorten the external ventricular treatment duration and thus reduce risks of infection and hospital stay duration - limit the medical imagery prescription and radiation exposition - avoid neurological deterioration linked to the external ventricular drain clamping in case of the pupillometric parameters variation would be earlier than clinical signs
Elevated intracranial pressure is a dangerous and potentially fatal complication after traumatic brain injury. Hyperventilation is a medical intervention to reduce elevated intracranial pressure by inducing cerebral vasoconstriction, which might be associated to cerebral ischemia and hypoxia. The main hypothesis is that a moderate degree of hyperventilation is sufficient to reduce the intracranial pressure without inducing cerebral ischemia.