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15 healthy males will be studied with PET/CT, using FDG to investigate glucose metabolism, and radiowater to investigate perfusion. One scan will be performed in controlled cold exposure, to see whether subjects have cold activated brown adipose tissue. Two scans will be performed in room temperature conditions, where all subjects are blinded and randomised to receive placebo and secretin hydrochloride. PET/CT scans will be analysed blinded.
This study investigates the chronic long-term health condition of obesity and its effect on neutrophil function and the inflammatory response
This lab study is evaluating the feasibility of accomplishing productive office work while simultaneously pedaling a compact desk-based cycling device.
The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of a regular yoga practice on body image in college women.
This study is a randomized controlled trial that compares 3 self-monitoring approaches for weight loss. GoalTracker is a standalone, technology-based intervention using a commercial smartphone app (MyFitnessPal) and email. The investigators hypothesize that the group that delays diet tracking and receives additional intervention components (weekly personalized feedback, skills training, and action plans) will have greater weight loss at the end of the 12-week intervention and at 6-month followup, compared to (a) an intervention group that simultaneously tracks weight and diet for all 12 weeks and receives the same additional components, and (b) a control group that tracks only diet.
This study aims to explore the effectiveness of a group psychotherapy intervention using Compassion-Focused Therapy (CFT) in adults with severe obesity. In particular, it aims to evaluate the principle that CFT can be used to reduce levels of shame and self-criticism in adults with severe obesity OBJECTIVES: The objective of the current study is to assess and compare a CFT group intervention to Treatment as Usual (TAU) with regard to psychological functioning, specifically self-compassion, shame, self-criticism, emotional eating and mood.
Women with pre-pregnancy obesity, women who exceed recommended weight gain during pregnancy, and children who experience rapid and excess growth during the first year of life are all at risk for subsequent obesity. The purpose of this study is to examine creative cognitive strategies to promote healthy weight gain during pregnancy, creating a sound substrate of metabolic programming for the critical first six months of life. A trans-disciplinary approach utilizing a patient- and family-centered intervention and active patient engagement with counseling for positive gain will work with women to shape lifestyle during pregnancy and postpartum, and when feeding their infants in the first 6 months of life. It is hypothesized patient engagement with counseling for positive gains will successfully mitigate excess weight gain in both pregnancy and infancy compared to usual care. Moreover, data will be examined to assess whether psychological variables, work and school climate, and social support factors influence body weight gain trajectories and/or weight loss during and after pregnancy.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Singapore is approximately half of that in the United States, yet the incidence of type 2 diabetes is similar, and is expected to double in the near future. This indicates that metabolic dysfunction, particularly insulin resistance, is widely prevalent even among individuals who are considered normal-weight or lean by conventional measures, i.e. body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat. These individuals are often referred to as "metabolically-obese normal-weight" (MONW), and have increased risk for cardiometabolic disease despite their normal BMI and total body fat values. The prevalence of the MONW phenotype varies across populations and differs markedly among different ethnicities. However, our understanding of the complex interactions between ethnicity, body composition, and metabolic dysfunction and its reversal remains rudimentary. Previous attempts to characterize the MONW phenotype are confounded by the small but significant differences in BMI or percent body fat between groups (even if all subjects were lean, within the "normal" range), with MONW subjects being always "fatter" than the corresponding control subjects. There are no published studies that prospectively recruited groups of metabolically healthy and unhealthy lean individuals matched on BMI and percent body fat. Furthermore, although weight loss improves body composition and many of the cardiometabolic abnormalities in most obese patients, little is known about the possible therapeutic effects of calorie restriction in MONW subjects. Accordingly, a better understanding of the MONW phenotype and the evaluation of therapeutic approaches for its reversal will have important implications for public health. By facilitating earlier identification of these subjects, who are more likely to go undiagnosed and thus less likely to be treated before clinically overt cardiometabolic disease develops, results from this study will allow for earlier and effective intervention.
Obstructive sleep apnea is defined as a repetitive collapse of the pharynx during sleep (Malhotra, et al. 2012) which cases intermittent hypoxia. Snoring, witnessed apnea, fatigue and morning headache are symptoms of the disease which has severe health effect (Malhotra. et al. 2012) including increased mortality risk (Ensrud. et al. 2012) and effects on quality of life (Kuhn. et al. 2017). Obesity, male sex and age are all risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (Schwartz. et al. 2010, Edwards. et al. 2010) . Bariatric surgery is known to be a good treatment to achieve a sustained weight loss but the long term effects of bariatric treatment of obstructive sleep apnea is not well studied. The aim of this study is therefore to study the long effects of bariatric surgery as a treatment for obstructive sleep apnea and to find predictors that can be used to predict the severity of the disease.
This study evaluates the effect of the use of nasal CPAP in the cardiac function, measured by strain and TEI index, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea and obesity. In order to do so, 76 patients will be studied, half will use sham CPAP and half will use therapeutic CPAP for three months, with ecocardiogram, laboratory studies, ambulatory monitoring of arterial tension and sleep study before and after CPAP use.