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The proposed study is a cluster randomized trial to test the effectiveness of a parental support programme in pre-school class to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity and prevent obesity, delivered by teachers and school health services and in collaboration with primary care. The control condition is standard care in schools. The 6-month programme is carried out in schools in disadvantaged areas and is universal. It is based on Social Cognitive Theory and consists of four components: 1) Health information to parents regarding the child; 2) Motivational Interviewing with the parents by the school nurse concerning the child; 3) classroom activities for the children with home assignments; and 4) a web-based self-test of type-2 diabetes risk by parents, with follow-up in primary health care. The primary outcome is assessed as the difference between the intervention and the control group directly after the end of intervention at 6-months post baseline, and at follow-up 18 months post baseline, adjusted for baseline values. The outcome variables are the intake of unhealthy foods, unhealthy drinks, and healthy foods assessed by a newly developed method using photo-based dietary assessment. The secondary outcomes are physical activity and time spent sedentary measured by accelerometry, and measured BMI and waist circumference. Hypothetical mediator variables are parental self-efficacy and parenting practices regarding diet and physical activity assessed by questionnaire. Process evaluation will be performed through interviews and questionnaires to study how well the programme was implemented in terms of dose, fidelity, acceptability and feasibility. The programme is in line with the latest evidence regarding the prevention of childhood obesity: that schools should be a focal point of prevention efforts, interventions should involve multiple components, and include the home environment. If effective, it will fill a large knowledge gap concerning evidence-based health promotion practice within school health services to prevent overweight and obesity and in the long term reduce social inequalities in health.
Social networks, social capital, i.e., network-accessed resources, and neighbourhood environments have been shown associated with a range of health behaviours and conditions, including obesity, physical activity, nutrition, and mental health. Research on social capital and health in Montreal has shown the importance of network social capital for a person's subjective health status, sense of control, self-reported physical activity, and obesity. Research has also shown high social capital to reduce health service use, mental health service use, and improve the management of chronic illnesses. Despite advances in the understanding of social capital and its link to health and health service use, most research on social capital is cross sectional and is unable to identify the causal pathways linking social networks and capital to health and health care use. Longitudinal research would strengthen the evidence base for designing interventions to prevent or delay the use of health services, particularly in older adults. This research has three main objectives: (1) transform the original sample of Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging (MoNNET-HA) households (n=2707) into a panel study, (2) link the MoNNET-HA participant data to their Quebec Health Insurance Registry (Régie de l'assurance maladie (RAMQ)) information, and (3) assess the feasibility of extending the MoNNET-HA panel by one wave to include participant's core network members. Unique about the original MoNNET-HA sample is that it purposefully oversampled older adults (> 64 years old) but remains representative of Montreal adults at various ages and income levels. In addition, MoNNET-HA data is integrated into a GIS database which allows researchers to examine the effects of neighbourhood environmental characteristics on health. By linking MoNNET-HA data to RAMQ, researchers will be able to examine patterns of diagnosed health conditions, (e.g., fractures, depression), pharmaceutical use and adherence, and formal health care use over time. Transforming the cross-sectional study into a panel study would also allow researchers to examine longitudinally the dynamics of health and health care utilization among Panel participants over the life course, and the causal pathways linking neighbourhoods and networks to health and health care use.
The study evaluates the timeline of changes of body composition, physical and psychological performance, and biochemical markers of metabolism and inflammation responses to low energy ketogenic diet for loosing weight in obese individuals. The participants will be monitored and guided by the interdisciplinary obesity team for 12 weeks.
This a controlled, double-blind, randomized, cross designed study to determine the effect of an alcohol-free beer with low glycemic index carbohydrates (isomaltulose) and a resistant maltodextrin, comparing to an alcohol-free beer with regular composition, on glycemic metabolism (glucose, glycated hemoglobin, insulin and HOMA index) in subjects with recently diagnosed diabetes mellitus and overweight or obesity. 44 subjects were randomized to consume for 10 weeks: a) two alcohol-free beers with regular carbohydrates composition per day; b) two alcohol-free beers with modified carbohydrates composition per day. Those subjects randomized to begin with A beer during 10 weeks will change to B beer during the second phase for 10 weeks and vice versa. There is a 4-8 weeks wash-out period between two phases.
15 healthy males will be studied with PET/CT, using FDG to investigate glucose metabolism, and radiowater to investigate perfusion. One scan will be performed in controlled cold exposure, to see whether subjects have cold activated brown adipose tissue. Two scans will be performed in room temperature conditions, where all subjects are blinded and randomised to receive placebo and secretin hydrochloride. PET/CT scans will be analysed blinded.
This study investigates the chronic long-term health condition of obesity and its effect on neutrophil function and the inflammatory response
This lab study is evaluating the feasibility of accomplishing productive office work while simultaneously pedaling a compact desk-based cycling device.
The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of a regular yoga practice on body image in college women.
This study is a randomized controlled trial that compares 3 self-monitoring approaches for weight loss. GoalTracker is a standalone, technology-based intervention using a commercial smartphone app (MyFitnessPal) and email. The investigators hypothesize that the group that delays diet tracking and receives additional intervention components (weekly personalized feedback, skills training, and action plans) will have greater weight loss at the end of the 12-week intervention and at 6-month followup, compared to (a) an intervention group that simultaneously tracks weight and diet for all 12 weeks and receives the same additional components, and (b) a control group that tracks only diet.
This study aims to explore the effectiveness of a group psychotherapy intervention using Compassion-Focused Therapy (CFT) in adults with severe obesity. In particular, it aims to evaluate the principle that CFT can be used to reduce levels of shame and self-criticism in adults with severe obesity OBJECTIVES: The objective of the current study is to assess and compare a CFT group intervention to Treatment as Usual (TAU) with regard to psychological functioning, specifically self-compassion, shame, self-criticism, emotional eating and mood.