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This study aims to explore the effectiveness of a group psychotherapy intervention using Compassion-Focused Therapy (CFT) in adults with severe obesity. In particular, it aims to evaluate the principle that CFT can be used to reduce levels of shame and self-criticism in adults with severe obesity OBJECTIVES: The objective of the current study is to assess and compare a CFT group intervention to Treatment as Usual (TAU) with regard to psychological functioning, specifically self-compassion, shame, self-criticism, emotional eating and mood.
Women with pre-pregnancy obesity, women who exceed recommended weight gain during pregnancy, and children who experience rapid and excess growth during the first year of life are all at risk for subsequent obesity. The purpose of this study is to examine creative cognitive strategies to promote healthy weight gain during pregnancy, creating a sound substrate of metabolic programming for the critical first six months of life. A trans-disciplinary approach utilizing a patient- and family-centered intervention and active patient engagement with counseling for positive gain will work with women to shape lifestyle during pregnancy and postpartum, and when feeding their infants in the first 6 months of life. It is hypothesized patient engagement with counseling for positive gains will successfully mitigate excess weight gain in both pregnancy and infancy compared to usual care. Moreover, data will be examined to assess whether psychological variables, work and school climate, and social support factors influence body weight gain trajectories and/or weight loss during and after pregnancy.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Singapore is approximately half of that in the United States, yet the incidence of type 2 diabetes is similar, and is expected to double in the near future. This indicates that metabolic dysfunction, particularly insulin resistance, is widely prevalent even among individuals who are considered normal-weight or lean by conventional measures, i.e. body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat. These individuals are often referred to as "metabolically-obese normal-weight" (MONW), and have increased risk for cardiometabolic disease despite their normal BMI and total body fat values. The prevalence of the MONW phenotype varies across populations and differs markedly among different ethnicities. However, our understanding of the complex interactions between ethnicity, body composition, and metabolic dysfunction and its reversal remains rudimentary. Previous attempts to characterize the MONW phenotype are confounded by the small but significant differences in BMI or percent body fat between groups (even if all subjects were lean, within the "normal" range), with MONW subjects being always "fatter" than the corresponding control subjects. There are no published studies that prospectively recruited groups of metabolically healthy and unhealthy lean individuals matched on BMI and percent body fat. Furthermore, although weight loss improves body composition and many of the cardiometabolic abnormalities in most obese patients, little is known about the possible therapeutic effects of calorie restriction in MONW subjects. Accordingly, a better understanding of the MONW phenotype and the evaluation of therapeutic approaches for its reversal will have important implications for public health. By facilitating earlier identification of these subjects, who are more likely to go undiagnosed and thus less likely to be treated before clinically overt cardiometabolic disease develops, results from this study will allow for earlier and effective intervention.
Obstructive sleep apnea is defined as a repetitive collapse of the pharynx during sleep (Malhotra, et al. 2012) which cases intermittent hypoxia. Snoring, witnessed apnea, fatigue and morning headache are symptoms of the disease which has severe health effect (Malhotra. et al. 2012) including increased mortality risk (Ensrud. et al. 2012) and effects on quality of life (Kuhn. et al. 2017). Obesity, male sex and age are all risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (Schwartz. et al. 2010, Edwards. et al. 2010) . Bariatric surgery is known to be a good treatment to achieve a sustained weight loss but the long term effects of bariatric treatment of obstructive sleep apnea is not well studied. The aim of this study is therefore to study the long effects of bariatric surgery as a treatment for obstructive sleep apnea and to find predictors that can be used to predict the severity of the disease.
This study evaluates the effect of the use of nasal CPAP in the cardiac function, measured by strain and TEI index, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea and obesity. In order to do so, 76 patients will be studied, half will use sham CPAP and half will use therapeutic CPAP for three months, with ecocardiogram, laboratory studies, ambulatory monitoring of arterial tension and sleep study before and after CPAP use.
Title: Effect of body weight loading on urinary electrolyte excretion Swedish Title: Effekt av belastning på utsöndring av elektrolyter Study period: Q2-Q3 2017 Study site: The study will be performed at the Institution for Neurology and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg. Principal Investigator is John-Olov Jansson, MD, PhD, Professor at Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg Background and study design: Weight reduction can be obtained by decreased appetite or increased metabolism. However, acute weight loss can also be obtained by loss of fluids - for example by increased urinary loss of fluid and salts, so called elctrolytes. Preliminary results from a laboratory lesson for the Master of Science in Medicine program at University of Gothenburg suggest that carrying a 10 kg weight vest could increase urinary excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl-. The purpose of this study is to investigate this further in a more controlled research setting. If confirmed, the results could potentially contribute to the development of potent diuretics or obesity medicines. The study will include 15 healthy volunteers and consist of three study days with about one week between each study day. The study subjects will go through a different study procedure each study day, and a randomized cross-over study design will be used to determine which procedure each day. Procedure 1: Wearing a weight vest with 10 % of body weight standing for seven hours. The study subject is allowed to sit for 10 minutes each hour. The reason for this is that it has been considered that the effect may be transmitted by weight loading of the lower extremities. Procedure 2: Wearing a weight vest with 1 % of body weight standing for seven hours, as a control for procedure 1, with lower loading. The study subject is allowed to sit for 10 minutes each hour. Procedure 3: Wearing a weight vest with 1 % of body weight sitting for seven hours. This is a procedure with even less loading of the lower extremities than during procedure 2. Urine- and blood samples, as well as heart rate and blood pressure measurements, will be collected during the study days and analyzed in order to address the primary and secondary objectives of the study.
The barriers faced by people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) begin in their mid to late 20s and often mirror the experiences of older adults (50+) living in the U.S. While evidence for successful population-specific health promotion programs and training, such as the 12-Week HealthMatters Program has been documented, an urgent need exists for continuous, readily available, on-demand training in these programs. Online training can substantially aid the widespread translation of evidence-based programs into practice and policy. This proposal seeks to test the effectiveness of an enhanced mode of translating the HealthMatters program into practice through the use of an on-demand e-Learning platform (HealthMatters@24/7) for staff in community based organizations (CBOs) in one state; thereby advancing the science of translational research. HO1. More CBOs in the asynchronous training program will have developed Strategic Action Plans for Health and Wellness, established Wellness Committees, and have equal or more resources and improved culture for health promotion at 1 year compared to CBOs participating in the current live HealthMatters TtT Workshop webinar. HO2. Staff in the asynchronous training group will have improved levels of learner/instructor satisfaction (job productivity, job performance, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, convenience) toward the training immediately after completing the enhanced mode of training, HM@24/7 compared to staff trained using the current live HealthMatters TtT Workshop webinar.
The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of an internet-based firefighter health and wellness program for volunteer fire departments.
The primary objective is to assess pre- and post-intervention nutrition education knowledge and preference. The secondary objective is to assess pre- and post-intervention fruit and vegetable consumption via a plate waste study.
Purpose: The Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study (GNHS) aims to assess the determinants of risk of osteoporosis and cardio-metabolic diseases and changes in their relevant indices in nutritional aspects, as well as other environmental and genetic factors. Study design: GNHS is a community-based prospective cohort study. Participants: About 4540 apparently healthy residents, living in Guangzhou city (South China) for >5 years, aged 40-80 years, recruited between 2008 and 2013. Visits and Data Collection: Participants were/will be visited every three years by invited to the School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University. At each visit, face-to-face interviews, specimen collection, anthropometric measurements, DXA scanning, ultrasonography evaluation were/will be conducted. Up to May 2017, 3400 and 2380 subjects completed the 2nd and 3rd visits. Key variables: 1. Questionnaire interviews: Structured questionnaires were/will be used to collect the participants' socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, menstruation and reproductive history (women only), sleep quality, family history, psychological health, social support and participation, cognitive function, habitual dietary intake, use of supplements and history of chronic diseases. 2. Physical examinations: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure tests, handgrip strength, and usual gait speed. 3. DXA scanning: A dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was/will be used to determine bone density and bone mineral content, bone geometry information, fat mass and muscle mass. 4. Ultrasonography evaluations: Ultrasonography evaluation was/will be performed to determine carotid artery intima-media thickness and plaque, and fatty liver. 5. Specimen collections: Overnight fasting blood sample and early morning first-void urine sample and faces samples were/will be collected, separated and stored at −80°C till tests. 6. Laboratory tests: 1. Blood tests: Metabolic syndrome-related indices; inflammatory markers; sexual hormones and SHBG; genetic markers; nutritional indices (e.g., carotenoids; fatty acids; minerals, folate, betaine, choline, and vitamin D, etc.) 2. Urinary tests: Flavonoids and flavones; minerals; creatinine and renal function related markers 3. Fecal test: Gut microbiota and related metabolites. 7. Morbidity and mortality: Relevant data were/will be also retrieved via local multiple health information systems.