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To determine whether treatment with the ENaC inhibitor, amiloride, improves endothelial function and arterial stiffness in obese insulin resistant subjects in a randomized placebo-controlled trial examining pre and postmenopausal women and age-matched men.
The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the effects of different types of just-in-time intervention messages on daily meeting dietary, activity, and weighing goals in a sample of young adults participating in a mobile-based weight loss program.
The current study aims to investigate the effects of a chosen technology-based exercise or healthy eating intervention that combines individual and group-based support, on weight loss and other health-related parameters in postpartum women with overweight or obesity. All participants will be asked to engage in a 20-week programme consisting of a 4 week tracked free living period followed by a 16-week intervention. The investigators hypothesise that reductions in BMI (body mass index) and improvements in health-related parameters will be observed post-intervention.
Post-prandial hyperglycemic excursions induce a cascade of deleterious effects on the body, including increased inflammation, production of reactive oxygen species, and impaired cardiovascular function. Ingestion of an exogenous oral ketone supplement blunts hyperglycemia in response to an oral glucose tolerance test. Accordingly, it is hypothesized that exogenous ketone supplement ingestion prior to a meal could be an effective strategy for blunting postprandial hyperglycemia. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of short-term (14-days) pre-meal exogenous ketone supplementation on glucose control, cardiovascular function, inflammation, and oxidative stress in individuals at an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes.
Scientific evidence for the dietary treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is insufficient, which is why the investigators aim to reform dietary recommendation to the overweight or obese patient with type 2 diabetes. This clinical study will examine the effect of a highly controlled hypo-energetic carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) diet intervention under caloric restriction-induced body weight loss as a treatment modality in T2D. The investigators hypothesize that this intervention compared to the conventional diabetes (CD) diet with similar loss in body weight improves metabolic control and cardiovascular risk profile in T2D by: - Reducing diurnal and postprandial glycaemia, thereby facilitating a significant reduction in HbA1c - Reducing ectopic lipid deposits in liver, muscle and pancreas - Improving lipid profile towards a less atherogenic profile - Improving metabolic actions of insulin, through increased sensitivity and β-cell function - Reducing diurnal blood pressure with no adverse effect on heart rate variability
Overweight, physically inactive but otherwise healthy adults habitually eating a traditional Western diet will follow an ad libitum self-administered Paleo diet for 8-weeks. Blood and body composition will be measured before and after the intervention period.
The increasing incidence of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma (EAC) in several Western countries can be primarily ascribed to risk factors such as obesity, chronic gastroesophageal reflux, dietary habits and alcohol intake. Nevertheless, Barrett's Esophagus (BE), remains the main risk factor for EAC. Several studies supports the role played by the gut microbiota on the modulation of metabolic and immunological pathways. An abnormal state of the microbial ecosystem seems to be involved in the promotion and onset of various diseases, including cancer. Recent studies have shown that diet and lifestyle have an important modulatory role as protective or risk factors for oncological diseases. The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) released a review of the evidence that emerged from published studies in the field of nutrition and cancer prevention and summarized their findings into 10 recommendations. Several studies have also shown that a moderate caloric and/or protein restriction seems to be able to reduce the risk of neoplastic disease development. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a lifestyle-oriented intervention on body weight, waist circumference, biomarkers associated with cancer risk, esophageal microbiota composition and adherence to cancer prevention recommendations after 24 months in overweight or obese BE patients. Methods and analysis: Patients are randomly divided into two arms, a control arm (CA) and an interventional arm (IA). The CA receives information about a correct lifestyle to prevent cancer. The IA is involved in the two-year program of moderate caloric and protein restriction. At the time of enrollment, anthropometric measurements will be recorded for each patient and they will be randomized to IA or CA. Blood samples will be obtained from each patient and blood glucose will be determined. Serum metabolic biomarkers will be measured in each serum sample and total proteins will be extracted from fresh frozen esophageal biopsy and will be analyzed to evaluate the insulin signal pathway. To assess esophageal microbiota profiling, total genomic DNA (gDNA) will be extracted from matched fresh frozen biopsy. In order to determine a score of adherence to cancer prevention recommendations, participants will be asked to complete a self-administrated questionnaire reflecting WCRF/AICR recommendations. All the measurements will also occur at the end point, after two years from the enrollment.
The purpose of this trial is to examine the effects of a novel, orally consumed dietary supplement (composed of naturally occurring components) on weight management and metabolic rate in individuals who are overweight or obese following a 12-week supplementation period. The investigator's primary outcome will be changes in body composition measured via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which will measure changes in fat and lean mass during the supplementation period. Another primary objective will be to determine whether or not the body mass index (BMI) changes during the supplementation period. A secondary objective of the study is to determine whether anthropometric measurements (waist-to-hip ratio) is altered following the supplementation period. Another secondary objective of this study is to determine whether metabolic rate (as measured in VO2 consumption at rest and during exercise) is changed following the supplementation period. Another secondary objective is to determine whether blood pressure (systolic and diastolic pressure, measured in mm Hg) and physical function (measured via VO2peak in mL/min/kg-1 and leg strength in kilograms) change when the supplement is administered over a 12-week period. Another secondary objective will determine how glycemic control, blood markers of inflammation and cholesterol are affected by this intervention.
This is a single-blind randomized controlled trial, aiming to evaluate the effects of vaginal seeding on body mass index as well as allergy risk for cesarean-delivered infants. It will be conducted in Liuyang city of China, and the targeted sample size is 106. All the eligible pregnant women will be randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group, and their babies of the participants will be followed up to 24 months of age.
This study evaluates the implementation of the BOKS program in three schools (K-8) in Revere, MA, and its effect on participating students with regard to BMI, cognitive, and quality of life outcomes. BOKS (Build Our Kids' Success) is a before-school physical activity program that has been implemented in over 2,000 elementary and middle schools. Two sessions will be held (Spring 2018 and Winter 2018. This is a cohort study evaluating the impact of program participation on child BMI, quality of life, and executive function.