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Obesity can occur due to an imbalance of energy. This energy balance is greatly influenced by hunger and satiety. Obese person cannot resist hunger, while non obese can control hunger. Gut hormones, such as PYY and ghrelin, are associated with appetite and satiety control. This study's objective is to compare the effect of breakfast with balance composition on gut hormones, glucose and ad libitum intake four hours after breakfast between obese and non obese.. The research methodology was used a clinical trial with 18 obese women and 22 non obese women participants. Subjects were given a balance breakfast (protein 12,4%, carbohydrate 68,2%, fat 22,6%). Gut hormones (PYY, Ghrelin, GLP -1) level , Glucose level and satiety level were measured at 0, 15, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after breakfast. Ad libitum meal was given four hours after breakfast and measured after.
Gut hormones, such as PYY and ghrelin, are associated with appetite control and obesity. Protein is thought to be the most satieting nutrient and could affect production of several gut hormones. This study's objective is to find the effect of breakfast with different protein composition on PYY, ghrelin, and ad libitum intake four hours after breakfast. The research methodology was used a clinical trial with 22 obese women participants. Subjects were given three types of breakfast: low protein consumption (12.4% protein), medium protein (23.5% protein), and high protein (40,6% protein). PYY and ghrelin level were measured at 0, 15, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after breakfast. Ad libitum meal was given four hours after breakfast and measured after.
Retrospective study of the data reported in the Obalon US Commercial Registry
A 12-week, randomized nutrition intervention for the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors in a high-risk population in the southeastern United States. The primary objective of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet intervention (education + extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) and mixed nut supplementation) versus that of an American Heart Association (AHA) nutrition intervention (education) on serum blood lipid levels as markers for cardiovascular disease risk. Researchers conducting this trial hypothesize that a greater reduction will be seen in cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Mediterranean diet intervention.
Hypothalamic obesity (HO) is an obesity secondary to an alteration of the functioning of the hypothalamus, the central organ of energy homeostasis. The causes of OH are related to an hypothalamic lesion (eg craniopharyngioma) or to genetic diseases (ex: Prader-Willi syndrome). OH, which accounts for about 5 to 10% of obesity, is a complex handicap characterized by severe obesity associated with eating disorders, cognitive and behavioral disorders and sometimes a visual deficit, with a major impact on quality of life, morbidity and mortality. There is currently no specific treatment of HO. Management is essentially behavioral, based on daily support of eating behavior and physical activities (PA). OH is characterized by an intense and almost permanent hunger felt, a satiety disorder and an obsessive interest in food. The food education of the entourage is essential, the advise concern the control of the access to food and the setting up of a precise food frame on the quantities, with low energetic density, and schedules. OH is characterized by obesity with lean mass deficit. PA must therefore be regular, adapted to the disability and personalized to take into account cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. Although the supervision of meals and daily PA is now recognized as fundamental in the care of these patients (National Program of Diagnosis and Care established by the French "Haute Autorité de Santé"), few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of programs with personalized support on global health. The investigators hypothesize that a personalized 4-month individual home-based counseling program on dietary counseling and PA can be effective to modify behaviors such as diet and PAs with an impact on changing weight and quality of life. The 16-week program includes a dietetic component (initial assessment with dietary care plan followed by a 30-minute telephone interview every month with dietician) and a PA component (two 1-hour individualized sessions, performed at home and supervised by a PA educator). Before and after the program, the investigators will evaluate habitual PA with an accelerometer, feeding behavior, physical functioning, weight change, body composition, quality of life and will constitute a biobank of serums, adipose tissues and stools. If the effectiveness of this program is demonstrated this will help to find ways to sustain this support by the institutions, to train professionals in the complex accompaniment of these patients. Finally this program set up as part of a rare disease can show the benefits in other populations of more common pathology (common severe obesity, intellectual disability, behavioral disorders).
The objectives of this study are to examine the effects of ethnicity, central obesity and dietary components, on the human gut microbiome. The investigators hypothesize that these factors have an influence on the composition of the gut microbiome. Healthy subjects (n=35) provided stool samples for gut microbiome profiling using 16S rRNA sequencing and completed a dietary questionnaire. The serum samples were assayed for a panel of inflammatory cytokines. Their associations with central obesity were examined.
The investigators propose a study to evaluate the success of a bicycle distribution program in increasing physical activity level, decreasing sedentary activity levels and positively affecting body-mass index (BMI) in participants aged 6 to 12 years old with overweight or obesity, who do not already own a bicycle, and are patients at the Children's Hospital Colorado Child Health Clinic (CHC), Lifestyle Medicine Clinic, or Rocky Mountain Youth Clinics. The investigators anticipate that the receipt of a bicycle will increase physical activity level, decrease sedentary activity time and decrease or stabilize patients' BMI. The investigators will answer this research question by distributing bicycles to 525 children and conducting follow up visits over the course of a year to measure the outcomes of interest.
The effects of the Astragalus and Notoginseng extrats on obesity control was demonstrated in a randomized double-blind, and crossover human trial.
Despite exercise training decrease blood fasting glicaemy in 'average' terms, there is a wide inter-individual variability after exercise training explored mainly in adults but not in adults with prediabetes comorbidities. Thus, is yet unknown the effects and influence of the concurrent training (CT) eliciting responders (R) and non-responders (NR) cases (i.e., percentage of subjects who experienced a non-change/worsened response after training in some metabolic outcomes).
Alternate day fasting is known to be helpful to control weight and have a positive effect on insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors. However, there have been no studies on weight reduction program combining alternate day fasting with exercise which preserves lean mass in Korea. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial is to examine the effects of alternate day fasting and exercise on weight reduction, visceral fat, and metabolic parameters in overweight or obese adults.