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The ileal brake is a feedback mechanism controlling stomach-mediated transit of a meal, for which gastric emptying can be used as an indicator. Previously, slowly digestible carbohydrates (SDCs) were shown to activate the ileal brake in a rat model; the current research aimed to determine the effect of common SDCs in humans.
Obesity, defined as a Body Mass Index greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2, represents a significant public health issue. Dyspnea is a very common and crippling symptom in obesity. About 80% of people with obesity experience dyspnea in daily living. Bariatric surgery has been demonstrated to be an excellent treatment for obesity by inducing significant weight loss. Nevertheless, changes in dyspnea in daily living after bariatric surgery and the links between variations in dyspnea and lung function tests after bariatric surgery have not been previously investigated.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of liraglutide and testosterone replacement therapy on features of hypogonadism and weight loss in obese men with persistent features of hypogonadism after unsuccessful lifestyle measures.
Evaluation of airway markers of patients who have undergone obesity surgery.
Recent evidence has shown that obese and overweight children exhibit states of chronic inflammation. In obese adults, a high carbohydrate meal induces an inflammatory response; however, the effects of a high carbohydrate meal on biomarkers of inflammation has not previously been examined in children. The purpose of this research project is to characterize the inflammatory response to a high carbohydrate versus a low carbohydrate meal in healthy weight, overweight, and obese children (age 7-17 years). After completing informed consent/assent, a Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan, and baseline blood draw on experimental day 1, children will then return to the lab two times to ingest either a high or low carbohydrate beverage followed by post-meal blood collection for a total of 3 blood draws. Biomarkers of inflammation will be analyzed by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Participants will be recruited through various studies through the Neurocognitive Kinesiology Lab/Body Composition and Nutritional Neuroscience Labs as well as through the local Champaign-Urbana community. Data from this project will provide a better understanding of the inflammatory response to different meals in healthy weight, overweight, and obese children.
This study aims to explore breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices of mothers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and its relation to the early life determinants of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This research study will follow a prospective cohort approach. Two hundred and fifty mother-infant pairs will be followed for 18 months. The hypothesis of this research study is that exclusive breastfeeding of the infant will provide potential protective effect against cardiometabolic risk factors. This study will also hypothesize that mothers who exclusively breastfeed their newborns would experience greater postpartum weight and body fat loss than mothers who are not breastfeeding.
The purpose of this study is to test whether deposit contracts, wherein individuals invest their own money with the study to serve as the incentive, with or without daily feedback about progress help individuals to increase step counts and more often meet a step goal compared to self-monitoring only.
Due to anatomical and physiological changes caused by the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) bariatric surgery, drug bioavailability after the surgery can be altered. Therefore, post-operative dose adjustment in these patients can be required. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery on drug pharmacokinetics and cytochrome P450 (CYP) mediated metabolism using a cocktail of nine CYP probe drugs. The cocktail covers nine main CYP enzymes: melatonin (CYP1A2), nicotine (CYP2A6), bupropion (CYP2B6), repaglinide (CYP2C8), losartan (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19/CYP3A4), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone (CYP2E1), midazolam (CYP3A4). The changes in pharmacokinetic parameters of the drugs as well as modulation of the activity of CYPs are evaluated before and one year after LRYGB. In the study, the patients administering drug cocktail before surgery and 1 year after LRYGB are served as their own controls.
As bleeding is a major risk in bariatric surgeries, we aimed our study to find any predictors to such bleeding within the surgery or 30 days after surgery. The study is a retrospective study collecting patients data, surgeons data, and hospitals data in order to find if any of the factors influencing patients, surgeons or hospitals, has to do with bleeding in these surgeries and if it does impact bleeding in what way. The goal is finding a predictor that it's neutralizing may prevent bleeding in bariatric surgeries.
Obesity is associated with general low grade inflammation and, consequently, of oxidative stress that affects properties and functionality of lipoproteins. Metabolic syndrome exacerbate low grade inflammation. The intentional weight loss of at least 5% of the initial weight can modulate the pro-inflammatory state and reduce the oxidative stress related to the metabolic syndrome, thus diminishing the cardiovascular risk.