View clinical trials related to Obesity.Filter by:
This study investigated whether the provision of a to-go container influenced the portion size effect at a meal. Following a screening visit, women came to the lab once a week for 4 weeks to eat a meal of multiple foods. At each visit, the portion size of the meal was varied in a counterbalanced order. Prior to their first meal, women were randomly assigned to one of two groups: a group that would have their leftovers packaged to go (to-go group) and a group that did not have leftovers packaged (control group). Women were instructed to eat ad libitum at the meals. They also answered questions about hunger and fullness as well as food characteristics before and after each meal. Following the final meal, subjects completed a series of questionnaires assessing subject characteristics as well as food characteristics. It was hypothesized that the effect of portion size on intake would be attenuated in subjects who received a to-go container with the meal. In addition, we aimed to identify any subject characteristics that moderated or exacerbated the portion size effect. It was also of interest to determine whether the portion size effect on individual foods were influenced by food characteristics such as perceived value.
The study develops, implements, and evaluates an intervention focused on alleviating discouragement, food insecurity, and excess weight in women,targeted at the individual, family, and community levels in the Canton Central of the province of Alajuela, Costa Rica.
In obese patients the superficial adipose tissue works as an endocrine active tissue to express different cytokines, and multiple molecular pathways implied in the cross talking with different part of the human body, such as the cardiovascular system. To date, adipocytes and adipose tissue-derived macrophages and adipose tissue synthesize, and secrete several cytokines, and sirtuins. In this setting, the excess of body fat is linked to heart contractile dysfunction. All these pathways are differently expressed in obese diabetic patients as compared to obese non diabetic patients. Intriguingly, in diabetic obese patients the hyper-expression of inflammatory cytokines is associated to a hypo-expression of sirtuins. Therefore, this molecular pattern in diabetic obese patients may correlate to altered myocardial performance, and to the development of heart failure disease. In this study authors will evaluate at baseline by peripheral blood samples and by the abdominal fat tissue, the expression of cytokines and sirtuins comparing pre-diabetics obese patients vs. non pre-diabetics obese patients.
This study evaluates patient response to a motivation evolution chart for a medical-nutrition intervention as a continuation of a previous study: adherence to an overweight and obesity treatment available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25101227
Fetuin-A has been identified as a novel physiological regulator of insulin action in vitro, in intact cells and in vivo in animals. Previous research has shown that circulating levels of fetuin-A were increased in animal models of insulin resistance and diabetes. Additionally, several human investigation studies demonstrate a correlation of fetuin-A levels with body mass index, insulin resistance, and a fatty liver. Recently, the investigators have elucidated the role of fetuin-A phosphorylation in the regulation of insulin action, demonstrating that phosphorylation is critical for the inhibitory activity of fetuin-A. The objectives of this study are twofold: (1) Quantitate phosphorylated fetuin-A levels in individuals with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, and (2) Investigate the effects of lifestyle modifications (acute or chronic exercise and dietary modifications) on fetuin-A phosphorylation and insulin sensitivity.
Obesity is a wide reaching problem in the United Kingdom. The most widely used obesity therapies are based around drugs that reduce dietary fat digestion, and thereby reduce uptake of calories from the diet. While such therapies have proved effective, patient compliance is low due to the unwanted gastrointestinal side effects of these drugs. Dietary fibre is generally classified as dietary material of plant origin that is indigestible to humans. Dietary fibre is in fact a wide range of different compounds that have varied effects on the human body. Initial findings from this laboratory suggest that some types of fibre can greatly reduce the rate that fat is digested and absorbed in the gut. Whether such fibre-based test foods are acceptable (i.e. taste good, are easy to include in the diet and do not cause any unwanted gastrointestinal side effects) will be assessed in longer term studies. To carry these studies out, healthy adults will be recruited. Participants will attend an induction visit and will be asked to keep a food diary, and fill out daily questionnaires on general well-being and feelings of fullness over a two-week period whilst consuming the standard white bread given to them. Following this two-week period, participants will attend the study centre again. At this time, participants will be provided with dietary fibre-based study food (bread) to substitute into their standard diet over the following two weeks (further bread will be provided as and when required). Participants will fill out the same diaries and questionnaires as before over the first two week period.
The purpose of this study is to determine whether the bile acid circulation is changed after gastric bypass surgery. Further, to account for how the changed anatomy of the gut influences how the bile acid and food is mixed in the gut and how this is associated with the changes in gut hormone release after the surgery. Our hypothesis is that bile acid reabsorption from the gut is increased as animal models suggest so and bile acid blood concentration increases after surgery.
Intragastric balloon degree of efficacy and duration of effect can be variable and unpredictable. The Spatz Adjustable intragastric balloon (AIGB) was developed to extend implantation to 1 year, decrease balloon volume for intolerance and increase volume for diminishing effect. The aim of the study was to determine the utility/efficacy and responder rate with the Spatz3 AIGB.
Visfatin is an adipokine that plays an important role in immune functions as a growth factor, enzyme, and proinflammatory mediator. The investigators aimed to determine the levels of visfatin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in both obese/non-obese patients, with/without generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP). Patients were categorized as obese (O) (n=31) or non-obese (nO) (n=19). Groups were divided into four subgroups according to periodontal conditions: (1) periodontally healthy without obesity (nO-Ctrl); (2) GCP without obesity (nO-CP); (3) periodontally healthy with obesity (O-Ctrl); and (4) GCP with obesity (O-CP). Demographic variables and anthropometric and laboratory data were recorded. Periodontal measurements were recorded at baseline and 3rd months after either non-surgical periodontal treatment or calorie restricted diet therapy. At the same time GCF samples were taken from patients to analyze TNF-alpha, IL-6, and visfatin levels.
Whole grains have been associated with controlled glycemic response and increased satiety compared to refined grains. However, the properties of whole grains which are responsible for these purported improved health outcomes are still unclear. The current study investigated the extent of whole grains' low glycemic property when food properties are controlled, and how this relates to gastric emptying rate and glycemic response.