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Adiposity is a key link between lifestyle factors (like diet and exercise) and cardiovascular (CV) disease. However, little is known about the link during the juvenile years, when the processes leading to CV disease are at an early stage of development. The specific aims are as follow: (1) to determine the relations of free-living diet and exercise to total body percent fat ( percentBF), visceral adipose tissue and CV fitness in black and white boys and girls of varying socioeconomic status. (2) to determine the relations of fatness and fitness to different CV disease risk factors. Design and methods: (1) Recruit 800 14 to 18 year olds, 200 in each ethnicity and gender subgroup. (2) Assess diet with seven 24-hour recalls, and exercise with two seven-day recalls and heart rate monitoring. (3) Measure percent body fat with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue with magnetic resonance imaging and CV fitness with a multi-stage treadmill test. (4) Measure major fatness- and fitness-related CV disease risk factors (e.g., total cholesterol:HDL cholesterol ratio, insulin, systolic blood pressure, left ventricular mass indexed to height, fibrinogen). (5) Conduct multivariate and univariate analyses to determine relationships.
Nowadays there is an increasing demand by consumers on healthy food products prepared in convenient forms, simple to use and not containing additives. In this sense, broccoli sprouts (Brassica oleraceae var. italica) represent an interesting choice as they are rich in glucosinolates, nitrogen-sulfur compounds, that are believed to counteract the negative effects of diverse pathologies. Human studies have been focused on the antitumoral properties of these vegetables, however there is less evidence on the anti-inflammatory properties of cruciferous vegetables in humans. As obesity is linked to an inflammatory component, the aim of the study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory action of broccoli sprouts in overweight adult subjects.
NuVal® shelf nutrition labels rate the nutritional quality of foods on a scale of 1 (worst) to 100 (best). In 2014, NuVal updated their nutrient profiling system which changed the NuVal score on many foods. The investigators took advantage of this "natural experiment" to assess the extent to which a change in the NuVal score at a grocery chain influenced yogurt purchases, a category with a wide range of more and less healthy alternatives. The investigators supplemented the retail scanner data with a survey of consumers in stores using NuVal labels to obtain their experience with the labels and the extent to which they state it influences their purchases.
The objective of this study is to assess feasibility of the application of an adapted version, with permission, of Dr. Cenk Tek's Simplified Intervention to Modify Physical activity, Lifestyle, and Eating behavior (SIMPLE Program), at Pathways to Housing in Calgary, Alberta. Dr. Tek and his colleagues reviewed the literature and eloquently summarized how individuals with severe mental illness, particularly schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are disproportionately affected by obesity and its cardio-metabolic sequelae leading to markedly reduced longevity and increased healthcare costs. Most new antipsychotic medications, which are credited for significant advances in patients' quality of life, appear to induce further weight gain, compounding the problem of obesity and related medical morbidity and mortality. In addition to the weight gain associated with psychiatric medications, sedentary life style, lack of availability of healthy food options, poverty, low level of physical activity, cigarette smoking, and inadequate knowledge or understanding of health maintenance, appear to contribute to the increased obesity rates and poor health in the severely mentally ill. Dr. Tek and colleagues reviewed the available literature on weight loss interventions in individuals with severe mental illness. Despite the overwhelming problems related to obesity, Dr. Tek's team found that research on obesity interventions for persons with schizophrenia is relatively neglected and that there were no treatments that were convincingly shown to be effective for weight reduction in this population with unique needs. Sensing a major societal gap, they decided to create their own weight loss intervention specifically for individuals with severe mental illness. Toward this aim, they collaborated with Dr. Kelly Brownell who created the Lifestyle, Exercise, Attitudes, Relationships, and Nutrition or LEARN Program. This multi-faceted program is designed to promote positive changes in motivation, attitude and deeply ingrained habits that will lead to long lasting weight loss. Brownell's LEARN program is a self-directed weight loss program that empowers the user to make lifestyle changes. Dr. Tek and his colleagues modified and built upon the program by creating the Simplified Intervention to Modify Physical activity, Lifestyle, and Eating behavior or SIMPLE program specifically for individuals with severe mental illness (http://www.simpleprogram.org/). The SIMPLE program is a group weight loss intervention designed for obese patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Dr. Tek and his team piloted their modified weight loss program and published their findings in 2007. Their preliminary study yielded greater weight loss than any of the published randomized controlled trials for a chronic and stable schizophrenia sample, and was the only study to show continued weight loss after the intervention ended. These early results prompted a new larger randomized controlled trial with the largest sample studied to date, an extended period of follow-up, and more detailed testing of the effects of weight loss on schizophrenia symptoms, quality of life, and laboratory markers of obesity related illness risk over a period of up to 16 months. Preliminary results of this trial show significant, sustained weight loss. The goal of this study presented for ethics review, is to apply Dr. Tek's 16-week intervention to a small group of patients at the Pathways to Housing program in Calgary, Alberta. The study coordinator will use Dr. Tek's published manuals, giving full acknowledgment to the authors, to create weekly supportive educational sessions for the group of patients. Three Pathways to Housing staff members, who regularly create education groups for Pathways to Housing patients during a weekly "lifestyle group", will sit in on each session. Weight (to calculate BMI) and waist circumference will be measured weekly. There will be no control group. The proposed feasibility study is designed to fit seamlessly within existing frameworks at Pathways to Housing. Upon completion of the study, we will convene a debriefing session with both the participants and the three Pathways to Housing staff to learn whether patients found the intervention valuable, and whether staff members feel capable of implementing the program on their own going forward. If the program is found to be feasible, the materials created will be available for future use by the multidisciplinary team at Pathways to Housing.
This study compared different frequency low-volume resistance training (RT) on total, android, gynoid and trunk body fat in obese older women
Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease. Excess weight is related to endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and oxidative stress which increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases. High-intensity interval exercise can release vasodilatory substances and promote increased muscle blood flow.
In this manuscript, we investigated the effect of resistance training (RT) on body composition, functional capacity, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in sarcopenic obesity elderly women, using a randomized controlled trial.
Aims-objectives: This study assessed the effect of the Solution Focused Approach (SFA) interview technique on overweight/obese adolescents' nutrition-exercise attitudes and behaviors. Background: Obesity is a serious health problem for all age groups, particularly adolescents; therefore, it is important for adolescents to develop healthy nutrition habits, acquire exercise behaviors. Unless healthy nutrition-exercise behaviors are acquired, obesity can develop in adolescence, continue in adulthood. Focusing on solutions can be effective for overweight/obese adolescents to develop healthy nutrition-exercise behaviors. Design: A pretest-posttest randomized-controlled trial design was used. Methods: The study included 32 overweight/obese adolescents (16 for intervention group, 16 for control group) aged12-13 years who attended a health center, met the inclusion criteria. The SFA interview technique was applied to the intervention group. Eight solution-focused interviews were conducted with each adolescent at two-week intervals (interview length 30 to 45minutes). For each group, anthropometric, metabolic measurement follow-ups were conducted in the first and sixth months. The data were evaluated using independent samples t-test, Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon test respectively for normally, non-normally distributed variables. The categorical variables were compared using chi-square test. The value p<0.05 was accepted to be statistically significant.
The Quebec Family Study (QFS) is an observational study that was planned to investigate the role of genetic factors in physical fitness, body composition, risk factors for common disease and health-related behaviour.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of low dose liraglutide in combination with metformin compared to metformin alone on IVF pregnancy rate (PR) and cumulatively PR (IVF and spontaneous) in infertile obese women with PCOS who had been previously poor responders regarding weight reduction with lifestyle modification and resistant to first line reproductive treatments.