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The balance between hunger and satiety is imperative for an individual's survival and overall health.). Without this balance, individuals can become morbidly obese or lack adequate nutrition for survival. Craniopharyngioma (CP) is a benign tumour that occurs at the base of the brain in children. Unfortunately, pediatric neurosurgeons sometimes inadvertently destroy a child's satiety centre during CP tumour removal surgery. This leaves the child with a post-operative complication: an insatiable appetite. This form of obesity is called "hypothalamic obesity". This study is designed to investigate Deep Brain Stimulation for hypothalamic obesity in n=6 young adults who have stabilized tumours.
This prospective, multicenter, open label, single arm study will enroll subjects presenting with obesity and inadequately controlled type II diabetes (T2DM). A dual path jejunoileal side-to-side anastomosis is endoscopically created using the Neujia device. Subjects are followed for 12 months and annually thereafter for up to 5 years to assess change in metabolic parameters, medications, weight, and adverse events.
The use of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) in replacement of nutritive sweeteners (NS) could be a potential weight loss strategy as it may reduce energy intake. One concern with the replacement of NS with NNS is the risk of caloric compensation after consumption of NNS. Most studies have examined the effect of NNS foods and beverages on energy intake in the short-term (one-day or less), with results suggesting lack of compensation in the very short-term (less than one day), and then compensation, or over compensation, when the NNS products are consumed on one day with measures of energy intake taken over 1 to 2 days (Anton et al., 2010; Lavin et al., 1997; Overduin et al., 2016; Appleton et al., 2007; Piernas et al., 2013). Given these mixed results, it is still not clear if NNS foods and beverages are a beneficial strategy for decreasing energy intake. However most studies have been in lab-based settings, in which participants are consuming provided food at specific times. No study has reported on the effect of NNS foods or beverages consumed over several days and energy intake on these days when participants are in free-living situations. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation is to evaluate how NNS beverage consumption affects energy intake in free-living situations over a span of three days. Through a 3x4 mixed design, participants will be randomized into one of three groups: NNS beverage, NS beverage, or carbonated water (control). Participants will be encouraged to go about their normal daily activities and not change any other aspect except for drink consumption. One baseline and three, 24-hour dietary recalls will be collected over the course of the study to analyze energy intake. The specific aim of this investigation is to determine if caloric compensation occurs during 3-day exposure to NNS beverages.
The purpose of the study is to determine the effect of intranasal OXT caloric intake and eating behaviors in otherwise healthy obese adolescents. The primary objective of this study is to determine the effects of intranasal administration of oxytocin on food intake in obese, pubertal or post-pubertal adolescents (13 to <18 years in girls, and 15 to <20 years in boys).
The purpose of this study is to determine if a weight loss app (VA MOVE!® Coach App) along with regularly scheduled telephone counseling, will motivate obese people with metabolic syndrome to lose weight and improve the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome, compared to usual weight loss approaches. This study will randomly assign participants to one of two groups, interventional or control. The interventional group will use the app with phone coaching and standard of care for weight loss. The control group will receive standard weight loss care without the app and phone coaching. Weight loss motivation to adopt life-style changes to maintain weight loss and quality of life between the two groups will be compared. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of disorders including high blood pressure, pre-diabetes, the tendency to carry body weight around the waist, and increased fat in the blood. When these problems happen together, there is an increased risk for heart attack, stroke, diabetes and certain cancers. Although the metabolic syndrome is a serious condition, it can be treated with diet, weight loss and increased activity. It can even be reversed using these lifestyle changes. Due to poor success with routine short-term weight loss treatment (group and one-on-one counseling), it is time to address the problem by a different method. Studies have shown feedback devices and weight loss apps have been successful in weight loss and weight maintenance. They are economical (many apps are free), and convenient to use, without attendance at group sessions. Since weight loss is the corner stone for improvement in the symptoms of the MetS, this study will offer a unique approach to support individuals who are committed to losing weight and adopting a healthier lifestyle. Numerous studies demonstrated that feedback via text messaging, and interaction through social networking support groups, in addition to iPhone apps, are all more effective in weight loss measures than group sessions at a hospital site. (Duncan et al., 2011; Greene, Sacks, Piniewski, Kil, & Hahn, 2012; Shaw et al., 2013; Spring et al., 2013). The benefit of these various methods is that they appear to accelerate weight loss and prevent weight re-gain if employed long-term. With technology changing daily, these approaches must be considered an essential adjunct to, or replacement for, traditional group counselling sessions.
Background: Children s weight has increased sharply in recent years. This may put them at higher risk for health problems. High blood glucose in a pregnant mother and too much weight gain during pregnancy also may have long-term effects on the child s health. Children who become overweight or obese during childhood tend to remain so as adults. Researchers want to study many risk factors during and after pregnancy, and how these affect a child s development. They will also follow the mother s health and well-being after pregnancy. Objectives: To learn how a pregnant mother s environment, lifestyle, and health conditions may affect her child s growth and development from birth until adulthood. Eligibility: Women 18 and older who are getting prenatal care at Phoenix Indian Medical Center Mothers and children who were in the LIFE-Moms Phoenix study Design: Mothers will have 3 visits during pregnancy. In the child s first year, mothers will have 2 visits and their child will have 4. Children will have 2 visits in their second year and 1 each year until they turn 18. Mothers will have a visit 2 years after birth and 4-5 years later. Both the mother and child s medical records will be reviewed. They will have physical exams and give blood and stool samples. Mothers may give cord blood and placenta samples. They will give breastmilk and urine samples. They will fill out questionnaires. Children s hair and toenail clippings (and baby teeth that fall out, if possible) will be collected. They will have an ultrasound. They may get an activity monitor. Mother and child will be followed until the child s 18th birthday.
The study investigates the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) versus continuous training (CT), combined or not with fasting, on capillary density, microvascular function, cardiometabolic risk markers, functional capacity, and quality of life, in overweight or obese sedentary women with cardiometabolic risk factors. The use of HIIT could promote greater improvements in these parameters than CT. Furthermore, the positive effects of exercise may increase when it is performed in the fasting state, compared to exercise performed in the fed state.
Obesity is an 'epidemic' within the UK. Individuals living with obseity are at risk of developing cancer, heart problems and dieing. Furthermore, obesity impacts on psychological wellbeing via lowered self-efficacy, self-esteem, body image and overall quality of life (QoL). A pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) is proposed to investigate the additional benefit of a psychological intervention alongside treatment as usual (TAU) in a weight management service. Patients routinely attending an outpatient clinic will be randomised into TAU with or without additional acceptance and commitment Therapy (ACT) group based-input and their outcomes monitored over time.
In this prospective randomized controlled multi center trial the investigators stratify "Very Low Birthweight " (VLBW)-infants with growth retardation in small for gestational age (SGA) or intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) - infants and aim to investigate the impact of a nutritional management with enhanced nutrients from discharge up to the 52nd week of postconceptional age on growth, body composition, metabolic programming, metabolomics, microbiome and long term neurodevelopmental outcome. In this study, the investigators will evaluate the difference in metabolic profiles of SGA and IUGR preterm infants. The investigators will further longitudinally assess, how different nutritional interventions affect the altered pathways in the first year of life and identify, in combination with data available from metabolic markers, microbiome and breast milk analysis, potential pathways resulting in increased disease risk later in life.
Bariatric surgery is the most effective, long-term treatment for morbid obesity, and consistent with previous findings, individuals who lose significant weight after surgery also have improved cognition or "brain function". The mechanisms behind these cognitive improvements are currently unknown, but are the focus of much research effort. The goal of this pilot study is to thoroughly describe these changes in surgical versus medical weight loss patients over time in a repeated measures fashion.