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The balance between hunger and satiety is imperative for an individual's survival and overall health.). Without this balance, individuals can become morbidly obese or lack adequate nutrition for survival. Craniopharyngioma (CP) is a benign tumour that occurs at the base of the brain in children. Unfortunately, pediatric neurosurgeons sometimes inadvertently destroy a child's satiety centre during CP tumour removal surgery. This leaves the child with a post-operative complication: an insatiable appetite. This form of obesity is called "hypothalamic obesity". This study is designed to investigate Deep Brain Stimulation for hypothalamic obesity in n=6 young adults who have stabilized tumours.
The use of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) in replacement of nutritive sweeteners (NS) could be a potential weight loss strategy as it may reduce energy intake. One concern with the replacement of NS with NNS is the risk of caloric compensation after consumption of NNS. Most studies have examined the effect of NNS foods and beverages on energy intake in the short-term (one-day or less), with results suggesting lack of compensation in the very short-term (less than one day), and then compensation, or over compensation, when the NNS products are consumed on one day with measures of energy intake taken over 1 to 2 days (Anton et al., 2010; Lavin et al., 1997; Overduin et al., 2016; Appleton et al., 2007; Piernas et al., 2013). Given these mixed results, it is still not clear if NNS foods and beverages are a beneficial strategy for decreasing energy intake. However most studies have been in lab-based settings, in which participants are consuming provided food at specific times. No study has reported on the effect of NNS foods or beverages consumed over several days and energy intake on these days when participants are in free-living situations. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation is to evaluate how NNS beverage consumption affects energy intake in free-living situations over a span of three days. Through a 3x4 mixed design, participants will be randomized into one of three groups: NNS beverage, NS beverage, or carbonated water (control). Participants will be encouraged to go about their normal daily activities and not change any other aspect except for drink consumption. One baseline and three, 24-hour dietary recalls will be collected over the course of the study to analyze energy intake. The specific aim of this investigation is to determine if caloric compensation occurs during 3-day exposure to NNS beverages.
The purpose of this study is to determine if a weight loss app (VA MOVE!® Coach App) along with regularly scheduled telephone counseling, will motivate obese people with metabolic syndrome to lose weight and improve the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome, compared to usual weight loss approaches. This study will randomly assign participants to one of two groups, interventional or control. The interventional group will use the app with phone coaching and standard of care for weight loss. The control group will receive standard weight loss care without the app and phone coaching. Weight loss motivation to adopt life-style changes to maintain weight loss and quality of life between the two groups will be compared. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of disorders including high blood pressure, pre-diabetes, the tendency to carry body weight around the waist, and increased fat in the blood. When these problems happen together, there is an increased risk for heart attack, stroke, diabetes and certain cancers. Although the metabolic syndrome is a serious condition, it can be treated with diet, weight loss and increased activity. It can even be reversed using these lifestyle changes. Due to poor success with routine short-term weight loss treatment (group and one-on-one counseling), it is time to address the problem by a different method. Studies have shown feedback devices and weight loss apps have been successful in weight loss and weight maintenance. They are economical (many apps are free), and convenient to use, without attendance at group sessions. Since weight loss is the corner stone for improvement in the symptoms of the MetS, this study will offer a unique approach to support individuals who are committed to losing weight and adopting a healthier lifestyle. Numerous studies demonstrated that feedback via text messaging, and interaction through social networking support groups, in addition to iPhone apps, are all more effective in weight loss measures than group sessions at a hospital site. (Duncan et al., 2011; Greene, Sacks, Piniewski, Kil, & Hahn, 2012; Shaw et al., 2013; Spring et al., 2013). The benefit of these various methods is that they appear to accelerate weight loss and prevent weight re-gain if employed long-term. With technology changing daily, these approaches must be considered an essential adjunct to, or replacement for, traditional group counselling sessions.
Obesity is an 'epidemic' within the UK. Individuals living with obseity are at risk of developing cancer, heart problems and dieing. Furthermore, obesity impacts on psychological wellbeing via lowered self-efficacy, self-esteem, body image and overall quality of life (QoL). A pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) is proposed to investigate the additional benefit of a psychological intervention alongside treatment as usual (TAU) in a weight management service. Patients routinely attending an outpatient clinic will be randomised into TAU with or without additional acceptance and commitment Therapy (ACT) group based-input and their outcomes monitored over time.
Bariatric surgery is the most effective, long-term treatment for morbid obesity, and consistent with previous findings, individuals who lose significant weight after surgery also have improved cognition or "brain function". The mechanisms behind these cognitive improvements are currently unknown, but are the focus of much research effort. The goal of this pilot study is to thoroughly describe these changes in surgical versus medical weight loss patients over time in a repeated measures fashion.
The purpose of the research is to determine energy expenditure rates and diet and/ physical activity metabolic features of an individual using current state technologies and a new technology created at the Center for Bioelectronics and Biosensors at ASU. This is a pilot study which intent is to validate this device for use in the weight loss patient population. This study will involve research of metabolic physiological parameters that are measured through the breath of the individuals, together with other physical parameters (weight, height, date of birth, fat and lean body composition via bio-impedance, heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate) assessed in the clinic, and a questionnaire about diary physical activities. The study will involve withdrawn of breath samples at resting conditions, and under diets or physical activities regimes. This instrument will assist our patients in terms of tailoring their diet/nutrition through their weight loss journey prior and after surgery. As a new technology, it will be an excellent tool for compliance assessment and engagement with the Weight Loss Program as well as for long term follow up.
Obesity and excessive weight gain in pregnancy have significant associated maternal and fetal complications including gestational diabetes, large for gestational age infants, birth trauma, and stillbirth. The standard of care places the responsibility on the providers during prenatal visits to remind patients of their weight gain goals and provide appropriate counseling. The objective of this study is to evaluate a sustainable medical student-assisted longitudinal program of nutritional counseling and web based nutrition tracking for pregnant women on excessive weight gain during pregnancy and the effects on diet choices and fetal and maternal complications.
The investigators are examining: 1. the relationships of insulin levels and natriuretic peptide hormone levels, and 2. the effects of administering an infusion of natriuretic peptide hormone on the breakdown of fat in healthy lean and otherwise healthy obese individuals.
This study assesses weight loss from the Endoscopic Vertical Gastroplasty or Fogel Gastroplasty (FG). The purpose of the study is to: - Document that weight loss occurs (12 months) - Determine if it alters general wellbeing (emotionally and physically)
Adolescent obesity is associated with a number of serious health conditions and most obese adolescents become obese adults. Despite this fact, very few adolescent health centers offer clinical weight loss programs. This is likely because most weight loss programs require extensive resources and are not covered by most health insurance policies. However, this is expected to change since the American Medical Association's recent decision to recognize obesity as a disease. Therefore, it is important to identify simple and effective nonsurgical programs for weight loss, which can be used in adolescent health centers. The investigators are proposing to show that a meal replacement based diet program will be effective in reducing body mass index (weight adjusted for height). In this pilot study, 90 adolescents will either participate in a meal replacement based weight loss program or watch an educational video. Body mass index and body fat will be recorded over time to see if adolescents participating in the meal replacement program lose more weight than those who do not participate in this program. In order to address this objective, the investigators will assess group differences in body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), body composition (% body fat), eating disorder symptoms and psychological/behavioral variables.