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The objective of this study is to define associations between gut microbiota, SCFAs and obesity in populations spanning the epidemiologic transition, and explore mechanisms by which these factors may independently and collectively influence the development of obesity. The central hypothesis of this study is that the composition of gut microbiota drives SCFA production which in turn influences obesity risk at the population-level.
In obese children, excess fat on the thorax exerts an unfavorable burden on the respiratory system, particularly during exercise; however, it is unclear if this burden reduces exercise tolerance, provokes dyspnea on exertion, or contributes to respiratory symptoms that could be misdiagnosed as asthma, placing obese children at risk of unnecessary treatment and potentially a reluctance to exercise explaining reports of low physical activity and fitness levels, which are counterproductive to weight loss. The investigators will examine the respiratory effects of obesity in prepubescent boys and girls, including those with respiratory symptoms misdiagnosed as asthma, before and after 1) a program of weight loss and regular exercise and 2) continued weight gain as compared with prepubescent normal weight boys and girls before and after 1 year. These results will have broad and immediate clinical impact on the care of obese children, especially those with respiratory symptoms misdiagnosed as asthma, and the results could alter interventional approaches for preventing and treating childhood obesity.
The Communities for Healthy Living (CHL) program is a family-focused intervention to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors including diet and physical activity among children (age 3-to 5-years) and their families, enrolled in Head Start.
Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a multisystemic genetic disease characterized by hypotonia, mental retardation, hyperphagia, and uncontrollable hunger due to hypothalamic dysfunction, caused by dysregulation of genes located in chromosome 15q11-q13. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on hyperphagia and behavior in PWS. Forty children and adolescents (11-24 years) with clinical and cytogenetic-molecular diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome will be assessed before and after 10 tDCS session with: Food Craving Questionnaire (FCQ), Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), Dykens hyperphagia questionnaire. Caregivers self-reported the participant's behaviors at home and, lately, they will be categorized and quantified. tDCS will be applied for 20 minutes with electrodes of 25cm2 wrapped in cotton material soaked in saline solution. The anode at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (F3) and the cathode at the contralateral area (F4). Children from 11-12 years will receive a current of 1mA; above 13 years, 2mA.
Patient records from Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center historical files
This study tests the effectiveness of three social incentive-based gamification interventions to increase physical activity using a 24-week intervention period with a 12-week follow-up.
This study focus on the cause of obesity and impacts of bariatric surgery on it.
The study aims to evaluate the possible effects of an exercise program, nutritional and psychological, postural orientation and guidance of oral health on body composition, physical activity levels and lifestyle, physical fitness and health and motor performance, the factors risk of cardiovascular disease, eating habits, the cognition levels, the psychological profile, the body posture of children and adolescent with overweight and obesity, considering the presence of risk genotype associated with the development of obesity. In addition, identify the effects of orientation for oral health on the quality of life and healthy oral habits.
Background: Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) send genetic data from cell to cell. This is how they affect the way cells communicate with each other. There are many types of exRNA, and they each serve different roles. But they have also been linked to some diseases. Researchers want to measure exRNAs to see how they relate to certain traits over time. They will use blood samples that were taken as part of the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). Objectives: To identify cross-sectional associations of exRNAs with age, sex, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Eligibility: People ages 30-70 who had blood taken as part of the FHS Third Generation cohort. Design: Researchers will study samples that have already been collected in the FHS. There will be no active participant contact for this project, only use of data that are collected as part of planned follow up from other studies. As part of the FHS, participants gave blood samples. They gave permission for the blood to be used for research. The exRNAs from the blood samples will be studied to see how they relate to certain traits. These include age, sex, and body mass index. The exRNAs will also be studied for their usefulness as biomarkers of risk for subclinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. No study participants will be contacted for this study.
Intervention targets youth ages 14 - 19 participating in soccer teams. The intervention group will be given face to face nutrition lessons and have access to an online immersive learning environment. The comparison group will not. The project will test if the immersive learning environment is effective in preventing unhealthy weight gain.