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Previous research has suggested that cesarean section may be associated with an increased risk of developing obesity in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Yet, previous studies have been small or unable to differentiate between elective and non-elective cesarean section. Therefore, using a population-based cohort the purpose is to examine the associations between vaginal delivery, elective and non-elective cesarean section on the risk of developing obesity in young adulthood among Swedish young singleton males. Using the Swedish medical birth registry, the recorded mode of delivery and indication of delivery which will be matched to those males who perform military conscription, where their body mass index is recorded. The investigators hypothesize that there will be an elevated risk of obesity in those born with non-elective cesarean section, as a function of confounding, while those born with elective cesarean section will not have a higher risk of obesity than those born with vaginal delivery.
The investigators aim to test an evidence-based intervention, allocated to a mobile app designed to parents and their children with 3 to 6 years old, identified by family doctors or nurses at well-child care visits as overweight or obese for age. This intervention aims to improve parent's perceptions and attitudes regarding children's weight status and food intake, leading to better dietary intake and children's' eating behaviors through positive parental child-feeding practices. In this study, the investigators aim to assess the feasibility of the intervention and explore its impact on the beliefs and attitudes of parents.
The aims of this proposal are to compare the effects of 4-h versus 6-h time restricted feeding (TRF) on body weight and metabolic disease risk factors in adults with obesity. To test the study objectives, a 10-week randomized, controlled, parallel-arm trial, divided into 2 consecutive periods: (1) 2-week baseline period; and (2) 8-week TRF weight loss period, will be implemented. Obese subjects (n = 150) will be randomized to 1 of 3 groups: (1) 4-h TRF (n = 50), (2) 6-h TRF (n = 50), or a no-intervention control group (n=50). This study will be the first randomized controlled trial of 4-h versus 6-h TRF, and will show that the 4-h TRF diet produces greater improvements in body weight, body composition, metabolic disease risk factors, sleep, and inflammation when compared to the 6-h TRF diet.
The Mexican Consulate runs a Ventanilla de Salud (VDS) (Health Window) program in fifty locations nationwide. The VDS provides an opportunity to provide health services to members of the Mexican community. Some of the concerns previously identified during the work at the VDS were that some individuals did not always get enough to eat, or do not always have enough money for food. This sometimes leads to unhealthy food choices-- buying and preparing foods that are inexpensive but really not good for the particpant. The investigators would like to conduct focus group to help make changes to a new diet and exercise program at the VDS called SANOS which stands for SAlud y Nutrición para todOS. SANOS aims to provide information for living a healthier lifestyle including on how to eat healthy on a small budget and how to become more physically active. The hope is that learning to eat healthy without spending a lot of money and to find simple ways to increase physical activity (like walking) will be a first step in reducing obesity rates within the Mexican community that have led to increased risks for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.
This study is designed as an observational trial. The objective of this study is to follow-up with participants 3 years after completion of an 18-month comprehensive behavioral weight loss intervention. Outcomes of interest include change in body weight, body composition, physical activity, energy intake, and sleep. In addition, investigators will explore the associations between current physical activity, sleep, and energy intake patterns and body weight regulation.
This study is an ancillary study to the UPLIFT trial (NCT03074643) to evaluate the effects of diet composition (i.e., amount of protein and carbohydrate) during a 6-month weight loss intervention and 12-months of follow-up on bone phenotypes in obese older adults. Participants will receive either a protein or carbohydrate supplement along with a behavioral weight loss intervention.
Researchers are doing this study to compare the effects of drugs approved for long-term weight loss combined with an employer-based weight management program with the effects of the weight management program without drugs for weight loss. If participants agree to be in this study, they will join the Cleveland Clinic Integrated Medical Weight Management Program (WMP). Participants will be assigned by chance (like flipping a coin) to one of two treatment groups: A) Group 1: Cleveland Clinic Integrated Medical WMP + medication for long-term weight loss. B) Group 2: Cleveland Clinic Integrated Medical WMP without medication for weight loss. Participants have an equal chance of being in either of the treatment groups. The total study duration for the individual participants will be approximately one year.
The overall goal is to identify trends and longitudinal associations in psychosocial, food-related, and cardiometabolic risk factors that can guide public health priorities and future research needs aimed at reducing cardiovascular-related disparities in Puerto Rico. To this end, investigators will establish 'PROSPECT: Puerto Rico Observational Study of Psychosocial, Environmental, and Chronic disease Trends', an island-wide, longitudinal population cohort of 2,000 adults (30-75 years) in PR recruited with a multi-frame sampling of probabilistic plus community approaches, and assessed in a network of several partner clinics across the island. The study will collect comprehensive data on multiple psychosocial, dietary, and food-related factors, CVD biological markers, and medical record data, with follow-up at 2-years, and will assess variations by urban-rural area and by timing before-after Maria.
Obesity and insulin resistance are worldwide epidemic and taking a major public health toll. Obesity also increases the risk for cognitive impairment which is also an increasing medical, societal, and economic challenge. The ultimate goal of this proposal is to develop a statistical model to assess systemic cross-talk between brain, peripheral tissues, gut microbiota and glucose metabolism. Integrated with exercise training intervention the results will be utilized to provide disease risk profiling and personalized predictions of exercise training as a drug free treatment for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
GERD is common in the obese population. Bariatric procedures are the mainstay of therapy for these patients. Bariatric procedures can be surgical (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and Vertical sleeve gastrectomy) or endoscopic (endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty). The rate of GERD after either treatment is unknown as is the rate of silent reflux. The study primary objective is to assess the incidence rate of GERD in bariatric patients that undergo either therapy.