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Aim of the study is to investigate genes regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in subjects whose glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, blood flow, or body fat distribution has been measured using positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) or computed tomography (CT) as part of their previous participation in clinical trials conducted at Turku PET Centre. By combining information from PET, MRI, CT, proteomics, metabolomics and genetics analyses we aim to find connection between genetic variation and metabolic and cardiovascular disease.
A total of 126 premenopausal women (42 lean, 42 obese with central obesity, 42 obese with peripheral obesity) will be recruited. Anthropometric measurements and body composition using DEXA will be collected. Overnight fasted subjects will be asked to give baseline blood samples before consuming a meal containing 6 mg 57Fe in the form of FeSO4. Subjects will return after 14 days and a blood sample will be collected for measurement of isotopic enrichment into red blood cells, serving as well as a baseline for the OGTT. Subjects will then be asked to ingest a solution of glucose (50g) containing 100 mg of iron in the form of sodium ferrous citrate (SFC), after which blood samples will be collected 2 hours post iron and glucose load. All three blood samples collected at baseline, 2 weeks post labeled iron load, and 2 hours post glucose/iron load will be analyzed for their levels of iron, glycaemia and inflammatory parameters.
The investigators hypothesize that a dietary intervention aimed at increasing unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) consumption is feasible and has the potential to improve cardiorespiratory fitness in symptomatic obese heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) patients.
The investigators would like to determine whether ultrasound features of the ovaries can be used to reliably diagnose different types of anovulatory disorders in women across all body types. The study will also try to establish whether ultrasound features of the ovary can reflect the degree of reproductive and metabolic problems that a woman with irregular or absent periods might be experiencing.
Standard Heparin management, based on total body weight, is not well established for obese patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and efficacy of using lean body mass (LBM) to determine pump flow rate and/or Heparin dosage in obese patients undergoing CPB.
Today the majority of pregnant women in the United States are either overweight or obese at conception with their offspring having greater adiposity at birth, a 2-fold greater risk of later obesity, and neonatal insulin resistance. It was long thought that breast milk composition was fairly uniform among women, having been optimized through evolutionary time to provide adequate sole nutrition for the growing infant regardless of the environmental circumstances. However, recent evidence shows that breast milk is a highly complex fluid with significant inter-individual variation in hormonal and cytokine concentrations. Pervasive maternal obesity is an evolutionarily novel condition for the human species but little effort has yet been made to systematically examine how this novel condition is associated with breast milk adipose-tissue derived hormone and cytokine (adipocytokine) variation, or whether that variation relates to infant metabolic status. The objective of this study is to comprehensively assess the "lactational programming" hypothesis, that is, whether or not recently documented variation in breast-milk composition is related to both maternal adiposity and to infant metabolic status. The central hypothesis is that a graded, dose-response relationship between maternal adiposity and adipocytokine concentrations in breast milk exists and that milk adipocytokine concentrations are associated with altered body composition in their exclusively breast-fed offspring. The results of the study will be used to design interventions to reduce maternal weight during pregnancy and lactation and to augment lactation education materials to focus on the needs of obese breast-feeding women.
Dysfunction of adipose tissue in obesity, inflammation and aging: mechanisms and effects of physical exercise and omega-3 fatty acids.
This study is a randomized, adaptive, parallel arm study. The treatment group will receive the Elira wearable patch system and provided instructions for use and advised to follow a 1200 calorie diet. The control group will be asked to follow a 12 calorie diet only. Each group will be followed for 12 weeks. Total body weight loss will be measured as well as appetite changes. Safety data will be collected throughout the study period. Safety and effectiveness will be determined based on differences between the groups.
Consumers are often forced to eat fast, convenient foods and snacks ("eat on the go") in order to match the pace of their lifestyles. However, these snack options more often than not offer little health benefit to the consumer. In fact, 55% of calories consumed by Canadians are ultra processed foods, which are limited in their nutrient profile and only offer empty calories. Subsequently, these foods lead the consumer to eat more and provides little to no feelings of satiety or satiation. the proposed objectives of the current project are to examine the physiological benefit(s) of consuming readily available pulse snacks and compare them to other commonly consumed snack varieties. This work aims to incentivize consumers to seek out pulses as valuable snacking options and highlight the benefit of including these as alternatives to other energy-dense snacks that lack the nutritional composition of pulses.
The overall goal of this project is to study the effects of exercise energy expenditure matched vigorous dynamic resistance training and aerobic training on cardiac fat, and its relationship to cardiac function and geometry using cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging.