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Background: The worldwide prevalence of obesity has tripled since the 1980s. Metabolic imprinting through early childhood nutrition seems to play an important role in the aetiology of obesity. Overweight at age two and later in life is associated with excessive weight gain as early as three months of age. Breastfeeding in the first year of life appears to be a protective measure against risks for obesity development. Objective: of the "Josef Ressel Centre for Early Life Metabolic Programming of Dispositions of Obesity" is to identify maternal and infant predictors of metabolic risk in childhood obesity. The main considerations of modifiable factors are early infant nutrition, 24-hours-drinking-volume, the velocity of infant weight gain, in relation to infant fat mass and fat free mass, to biomarker and to the nutritional status of the mother. A second focus is put on maternal feeding style, infant eating behaviour and the identification of satiety cues. Multi-Study design: monocentric based on a prospective longitudinal cohort of 100 healthy, non-obese, non-smoking pregnant mothers and their term, normal birthweight, singleton babies dyads. Mothers and exclusively breastfed versus exclusively formula fed children (at 16 weeks) will be examined at 36 weeks of pregnancy, 4 - 8 - 12 and 16 weeks of life, as well as a follow-up at 1 and 2 years of life. Methods: four weighing protocols between 4th and 16th week of life, feeding diary, anthropometric data measurement of mother and child, child fat mass index by air displacement plethysmograph PeaPod™ and BodPod™ of the company Cosmed™. The macronutrient and energy content of the breast milk will be also analysed by MIRIS™. Well-defined biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation, lipid profile, ghrelin, leptin, adipokines insulin, as well as micro- und macronutrients will be analysed as meaningful indicators regarding the development of obesity and/or the metabolic syndrome in newborns. Samples, such as plasma, urine, saliva, and stool of the mothers and children will be examined with High Performance Liquid Chromatography, High Performance Gas Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and more. Also questionnaires for the evaluation of the maternal milk feeding style are used as well as the Baby and Child Eating and Behaviour Questionnaire at 16 weeks, 1 and at 2 years. A semi-automatic recognition of infants' satiety cues during feeding will be performed. The recording environment includes video cameras and microphones, a pulse oximeter, etc. All signals are synchronously recorded with the aid of the hardware and software infrastructure (Noldus-Observer- XT™, Noldus-Media-Recorder™). Timeframe: January 2017 - December 2021
This study investigates the effect of intranasal insulin on cognitive processes (behavioural and neural) in healthy lean and obese female adults. All subjects will receive a single-dose of intranasal insulin and/or placebo (on different days) before participating in several cognitive tasks.
The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of the effects of weight loss on the lungs in older adults. Different types of tests to understand the effects of the EMPOWER interventions on lung function will be administered.
The purpose of this research study is to evaluate how exercise and surgical weight loss affect how likely an individual is to develop peripheral neuropathy and other neurologic complications.
This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the High Flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC) for the preoxygenation of obese patients undergoing a general anesthesia. The HFNC interface is compared to a standard anesthesia FaceMask (FM) preoxygenation with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP), the current gold standard procedure for obese induction. The interest of HFNC preoxygenation is to increase the "safe apnea time" before critical arterial desaturation, useful in the management of difficult airways, especially in subjects with reduced respiratory reserves such as the obese.
This study evaluates if executive function training in obese children can improve food-related choices and produce cognitive and neuroimaging changes, but also improve psychological and physical status and quality of life measures.
This study will look at the change in participant's body weight from the start to the end of the study. This is to compare the effect on body weight in people taking semaglutide (a new medicine) and people taking "dummy" medicine. Together with the medicine, the participant will also be part of an intensive lifestyle program where the participant will have talks with study staff about healthy food choices, what the participant can do to lose weight and be more physically active. The participant will either get semaglutide or "dummy" medicine - which treatment the participant gets is decided by chance. The participant will need to take 1 injection once a week. The study medicine is injected with a thin needle in a skin fold in the stomach, thigh or upper arm. For the first 2 months the participant will be on a low calorie diet. The diet is made up of bars, shakes and 1 low calorie pre-prepared meal for each day. The study will last for about 1.5 years. The participant will have 32 clinic visits with the study doctor.
The purpose of this research is to conduct a randomized controlled trial (RCT) assessing the impact of CBT on neural responses to binge eating stimuli.
Back to Basics is a mixed-methods intervention trial to reduce the prevalence of obese Alaska Native children by increasing the proportion of nutrient-dense traditional and non-traditional foods consumed, and decreasing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). This 5-year intervention trial targeting 0-5 year olds is conducted in partnership with Rural Community Action Program, Inc. (RCAP) Head Start (HS), Early Head Start (EHS), and Parents as Teachers (PAT) programs in 12 rural Alaskan communities in the Yukon-Kuskokwim (YK) region, where each site is assigned to either a 9-month nutritional education and meal program intervention or a standard education and meal program repeating annually. This intervention trial aims to increase consumption of local traditional foods and nutrient-dense non-traditional foods, decrease SSB consumption, and decrease prevalence of obesity in children 3-5 years old by: (1) adjusting the nutritional content of existing meal services provided by RCAP to children ages 3-5 years; (2) providing culturally relevant nutrition education to families of children 0-5 years; (3) developing local and community driven initiatives that provide knowledge and skills and engage families in the gathering and preparing of local traditional foods; and (4) incorporating available and emerging resources (e.g. Fish/Farm-to- Schools) to increase integration of traditional foods into the diet. Phase 1 involves the collection and analysis of formative and baseline data to help guide the intervention in Phase 2. Phase 1 includes: 1. Gathering baseline height/weight and food/SSB consumption data previously collected on children ages 0-5 years enrolled in YK RCAP programs. 2. Conducting formative studies in the 12 YK communities to better understand attitudes towards childhood obesity and barriers/enablers to traditional foods consumption 3. Creating/integrating a traditional foods-focused nutrition curriculum into RCAP menu programs in YK communities. 5. Work to expand the "Fish to Schools" and "Farm to Preschool" programs into YK RCAP HS programs. Phase 2 includes implementing: 1. A physical activity curriculum in HS programs in all communities 2. A traditional food in HS menu program in intervention communities 3. A home-based nutrition program in intervention communities 4. A mechanism to document traditional foods important to each community
The aim of this study is to find out how NNC0174-0833 taken with semaglutide works in people who are overweight or obese. Both study medicines have been investigated on their own. The study also looks at how the study medicines behave in participant's body and how they are removed from the participant's body. Participants will get 1 of the following 2 treatments - which treatment any participant gets is decided by chance: Semaglutide (a new medicine) and NNC0174-0833 (a potential new medicine), or semaglutide and placebo (a "dummy medicine similar to the study medicine but without active ingredients). Participants will get 2 injections per week for 20 weeks. A study nurse at the clinic will inject the medicine with a needle in a skin fold in the participant's stomach area. The study will last for about 16 months, but duration of participation for any participant will last up to about 7.5 months. Participants will have 28 clinic visits with the study staff and some will be overnight visits. Participants will be asked about their health, medical history and habits including mental health questionnaires.