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Central sleep apnoea (CSA) is common in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HFrEF). Various trials have shown a prevalence of 21 - 37% in this group of people. Up to 66% of patients with CSA and HFrEF present with periodic breathing (PB), which is considered being a marker of HF severity and poor prognosis. Brack et al. summarized data from cohorts, longitudinal studies and retrospective analyses showing an independently increased risk of death in HF patients with PB (HR 2.1-5.7 in five of seven studies). Furthermore, PB in HF patients is known to reduce quality of life and exercise performance and to increase sympathetic nerve activity as well as the probability of malignant cardiac arrhythmias. The pathogenesis of PB is characterized by an instability of ventilatory drive. The level of carbon dioxide (CO2) in blood and cerebrospinal fluid correlates linearly with minute ventilation. A high level of CO2 increases ventilation while hypocapnia dampens it. This control theory is based on the loop gain (LG), which represents the sensitivity and reactivity of the ventilatory system and comprises three components: The plant gain defines the capacity of the system to change PaCO2 in response to a change in ventilation (metabolic response). It is influenced by the lung volume as well as the anatomy of the thorax and the upper airways. The feedback gain is defined by the chemoreceptor responsiveness in reaction to blood gas changes. The controller gain is represented by the respiratory control center in the brain stem and defines the capacity of the system to change ventilation in response to a change in PaCO2 (ventilatory response). Sands et al. proposed and validated a mathematical model based on the ventilatory cycle pattern that quantifies the feedback loop. The ratio of ventilatory and cycle duration within the PB pattern is defined as the duty ratio (DR), which is the basis to calculate the LG. Any temporary breathing disturbance causing a PB pattern with a LG < 1 stabilizes within a few breathing cycles. A LG > 1 represents an unstable ventilatory response and slight changes of CO2 are accompanied by overshooting and undershooting of the ventilation. In that case, the polysomnography shows the typical pattern of waxing and waning of the tidal volume and effort. HF patients typically present with an increased LG due to an impaired left ventricular function and a hyperstimulation of pulmonary vagal receptors. Furthermore, Khoo showed an increased chemosensitivity (controller gain) as well as a decreased ventilatory capacity (plant gain) in this group of people. Sands and colleagues characterized PB considering the mean LG derived from several ventilatory cycles during non-REM sleep. This retrospective study of PB in HFrEF patients addresses the following questions: 1. Is a single LG value appropriate to characterize the individual PB? 2. Does the LG depend on sleep stage and body position? 3. Does the intraindividual LG variability allow for the discrimination of different PB phenotypes and, if so, do these phenotypes differ in further characteristics?
Heart failure is a common, costly, and disabling condition characterized by recurrent exacerbations. Episodes of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) account for the largest proportion of admissions and 30-day readmissions to US hospitals. Medication nonadherence and dietary/fluid nonadherence have been associated with re-admissions. Hand-carried ultrasound (HCU) devices are portable, relatively inexpensive, and can augment the physical exam in the assessment of volume status. Dilated Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) with poor collapsibility correlates with elevated central venous pressure, which may be correlated with earlier readmission for ADHF. Study design to measure maximum IVC diameter (IVC max) in mm and the degree of IVC collapsibility with inspiration on qualitative assessment in approximately 100 patients admitted with ADHF. The co-investigator will share the IVC images and interpretation with educational intervention group patients in real time; IVC images and interpretation will not be shared with control group patients. Study team will assess whether sharing these IVC measurements correlates with greater adherence to heart failure self-management after discharge, as measured by the administration of the Medical Outcomes Study Specific Adherence Scale, modified to a 3-item version relevant for patients with heart failure (MOSSAS-3HF) at 4 weeks after discharge. Study team will also assess for any difference in 30-day readmission rates for intervention vs. control group patients.
Although interventions combining patient education and postdischarge management have demonstrated benefits in patients with chronic heart failure, the benefit attributable to patient education alone is not known. The investigators hypothesized that a patient discharge education program would improve clinical outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure.
Objective. Atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after catheter ablation (CA) is a relevant clinical problem. Methods. 123 patients with paroxysmal AF will be identified and screened for participation in this randomized, prospective, double blind, controlled placebo multicenter trial. 109 patients will be randomly assigned and enrolled in the study trial. Enrolled patients will receive magnetic atrial resonance and then will be treated by CA to receive pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). In this patients cytokines, inflammatory markers, and biomarkers such as ST2 protein and B type natriuretic peptide (BNP) will be evaluated at baseline, after CA, and during follow up. These biomarkers will be correlated to clinical outcomes (AF recurrences and heart failure progression and hospitalizations), and to fibrotic atrium extension as evaluated by magnetic resonance.
The aim of our pilot study is to evaluate the feasibility, acceptance and efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) to support elderly patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in maintaining or starting physical activity (PA).
Within clinical settings observation of hemodynamic changes (e.g. mean systemic filling pressure, cardiac output) in critically ill patients with a clinical indication for deresuscitation with intravenous diuretic therapy.
Heart transplantation (HTx) is a procedure which is hindered by several complications. The HEARTS registry aims to allow the analysis of risk factors of all post-HTx complications. It consists in an exhaustive data collection at the moment of inclusion, i.e. HTx, knowing that patients underwent a full-fledged evaluation beforehand to evaluate their aptitude to being transplanted. Post-HTx complications include but is not limited to: all-cause mortality, AMR, ACR, CAV, AKI, sepsis, cancer, psychological disorders, metabolic disorders.
The study is aimed to evaluate if the education of the caregiver is able to reduce hospital admissions of patients with heart failure assisted at home.
Failing heart negative remodeling alterations might provide electrical heterogeneity and cardiac remodeling, thus potentially contributing to the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmia and subsequent sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this study we have prospectively investigated whether serum markers of heart failure (ultra sensitive Troponin , B type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP), C reactive protein (CRP), and ST protein) could be used as predictors for the occurrence of malignant ventricular arrhythmias in patients who had received an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) for primary prevention.
A study to assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of AMG 986 given orally as a single dose to healthy subjects and subjects with severely impaired kidney function.