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Small vessel diseases are conditions characterized by the narrowing of small arteries leading to an imbalance of blood supply upon demand. This results in a progressive chronic hypoperfusion with detrimental outcomes for the affected organ system and for the patient. Recent advances in genetic evaluation have identified several genetic variants causing cerebrovascular small vessel diseases. These diseases have common clinical presentation including recurrent strokes, progressive white matter degeneration, and debilitating dementia. The link between these pathologies is defects in the tunica media of arteries, which is composed mainly of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs). CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarct and leukoencephalopathy) is caused by mutations in NOTCH3. The disease is of slow onset, with initial clinical manifestations in the third and fourth decade of life, but progressive and fatal. Predominant clinical features include migraine with aura (atypical or isolated), strokes, memory loss, and multiple psychiatric symptoms including dementia. Currently, CADASIL is considered the most common hereditary subcortical vascular dementia. However, treatments are symptomatic therapyand there is little prospect of future therapies to directly address causation and block progression. We propose to characterize the etiology and natural history of CADASIL subjects through comprehensive clinical and molecular characterizations. Subjects will be seen at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) every three years for nine years for a total of four NIH Clinical Center visits.
The impacts of unmet social needs, such as homelessness, inconsistent access to food, and exposure to violence on health are well-established, especially for cardiovascular disease. A limited but growing body of evidence suggests that screening for and addressing these needs - also referred as social determinants of health -- in clinic settings helps to connect patients to resources to address unmet needs and has the potential to improve health outcomes. Veterans carry a high burden of unmet needs. At present, VA systematically screens for only two unmet needs; homelessness and food insecurity. The investigators propose to assess the efficacy of systematically screening Veterans for nine unmet needs (i.e., housing, food insecurity, utility insecurity, transportation, legal problems, employment, safety, stress, and social isolation), and compare the effect of referral mechanisms of varying intensity on Veterans' connection to resources, reduction of unmet needs, treatment adherence, reduced preventable hospitalizations, and clinical outcomes.
This study is a double blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel group study, designed to compare the efficacy and safety of VB-201 80mg taken orally once daily to placebo for anti-inflammation in HIV-infected subjects.
Heart disease and diabetes are leading causes of death and disability in the US, especially among Veterans. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling condition that also affects many Veterans. New research suggests that PTSD further increases the risk of developing heart disease and diabetes. What causes this increased risk is unknown. However, individuals with PTSD are often less physically active and make more unhealthy dietary choices than individuals without PTSD. Maintaining a physically active lifestyle, staying physically fit, and eating a healthy diet may be important for reducing the PTSD related risk for heart disease, diabetes and disability. The proposed research seeks to assess how important these lifestyle factors are for reducing the risk of heart disease, diabetes and disability in Veterans with and without PTSD. A better understanding of these lifestyle factors and cardiometabolic health in Veterans will help to clarify how lifestyle interventions can best be applied to the prevention and treatment of long-term disability in Veterans. Aim 1: To examine physical activity participation as a mechanism linking PTSD to cardiometabolic health and functioning in post-9/11 Veterans. This study will longitudinally assess associations between PTSD diagnosis, physical activity, cardiometabolic health, and functioning over time in 250 TRACTS participants. H1-1: Total self-report physical activity will mediate the effects of PTSD on cardiometabolic health and functioning over time, such that lower physical activity will increase the detrimental effect of PTSD on cardiometabolic health and functioning. H1-2: physical activity intensity will moderate the effect physical activity has on cardiometabolic health and functioning. Aim 2: To examine diet quality as a mechanism linking PTSD to cardiometabolic health and functioning in post-9/11 Veterans. This study will longitudinally assess associations between PTSD diagnosis, diet quality, cardiometabolic health, and functioning over time in 200 TRACTS participants. H2: Self-report dietary intake will mediate the effects of PTSD on cardiometabolic health and functioning over time, such that a poor diet will increase the detrimental effect of PTSD on cardiometabolic health and functioning. Supplemental Aim: To validate the use of a self-report clinical measure of physical activity against objective measure obtained via accelerometry. Objective measurement of physical activity is not often accessible or feasible for VA providers (e.g., time constraints). It is essential that quick self-report physical activity measures accurately reflect the physical activity of Veterans. This study will compare data from a self-report clinical physical activity measure to objectively measured physical activity/sedentary time (i.e., accelerometry), cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiometabolic health, functioning, and PTSD symptom severity in 100 post-9/11 Veterans. H1A-1: Self-report and objective measurement of physical activity will be significantly correlated. H1A-2: Both self-report and objectively measured physical activity/sedentary time will be associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiometabolic health, functioning, and PTSD symptom severity.
To evaluate a nine-week adaptable and person-centred I-CBT program that can be directed towards stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms in persons with CVD.
This study is a randomized, open-label, single dose, 3-period partial replicated crossover study to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles and safety of CKD-333 low dose in healthy volunteers under fasting conditions.
This study is a randomized, open, single-dose, 3 period partial replicated crossover-design study to investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles and safety of CKD-333 in healthy volunteers.
Individuals who underwent cardiac surgery may experience anesthesia, intracardiac operation, cardiopulmonary bypass and mechanical ventilation, which will result in a lot of injuries. Inspiratory Muscle Training (IMT) is a regimen of breathing exercises that aim to strengthen the respiratory muscles and make it easier for a person to breathe. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative IMT on e clinical outcomes in patients with cardiac surgery.
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death and prescription drug use. Research on certain dietary supplements looks promising as a way to help reduce risk factors. Previous studies showed that CoQ10 levels were decreased in cardiovascular patients and worsening of mitochondrial dysfunction was observed. The overall objective of this study is to determine if supplementing with CoQ10 can reduce inflammatory risk factors in adults with cardiac surgery, independent of other dietary or physical activity changes.
Intraplaque hemorrhage is the driving force of atherothrombotic plaque vulnerability to rupture and associated clinical complications. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) represent about 70% of leukocytes and may constitute a source of proteases and oxidants that favour plaque rupture. Our objective is to evaluate PMN activation in atherosclerotic plaque of non-diabetic versus type 2 diabetic patients. For this purpose, investigators will quantify the presence of cell-free DNA, that reflect the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in carotid endarterectomy samples.