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Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women globally, with ~1.4 million new cases diagnosed annually Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. While diabetes/insulin-resistance and breast cancer are distinct diseases, insulin-signaling plays a central role in both illnesses. Insulin activates key cancer processes including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tissue inﬂammation, motility, and angiogenesis. There are key opportunities to impact and prevent hyperinsulinemia during breast cancer prevention, surgical assessment, and chemotherapy. Given the high prevalence of undiagnosed pre-diabetes and diabetes in the United States and worldwide, preoperative screening to identify such patients prior to surgical intervention is warranted. While it is not standard of care to test for insulin-resistance during the course of breast cancer screening and treatment, it is standard of care to screen and test high risk women for insulin-resistance as part of whole woman care. Given the important role insulin signaling plays in driving signaling pathways that promote aggressive cancer biology, more attention should be paid by cancer physicians to screening and treating insulin resistance. Several studies have reinforced a link between breast cancer risk and diabetes. Moreover, metformin significantly reduces breast cancer risk, compared to patients who are not using metformin and is independent of diabetes status. As metformin has an association with decreased breast cancer recurrence, as well as potentially improved survival, disparities in insulin resistance between black and white women with breast cancer is important to investigate. It is hypothesized that metformin decreases the development of resistance in breast cancer cells, thereby allowing current chemotherapy agents to work synergistically with metformin. Our objective is to elucidate whether or not metformin is efficacious in improving insulin resistance in black and white women with breast cancer and if racial disparities in breast cancer prognosis can be partially explained by differences in pre-diagnosis insulin resistance which are improved with metformin therapy.
Our investigational team has developed a technology to visualize the operative margins in 'real time,' in other words during the operation while the patient is still on the table. While different surgeons use different operative techniques, our technique involves removing the main lumpectomy specimen, marking two of its borders with suture to orient the specimen for correct pathologic evaluation. The FLIM (Fluorescent Lifetime Imaging Microscopy) technique can differentiate between cancerous and noncancerous specimens using a complex algorithm that essentially utilizes a definitive delta between the metabolic activities of diseased and non-diseased tissue. The research coordinator along with the surgeon will be able to insert the lumpectomy specimen followed by the 6 shaved margins (one by one) in a matter of minutes once the specimens have been resected. To be clear, the FLIM analysis will be taking place in- vitro. The device is invitro test and would be tested against the gold standard the pathologist biopsy. FLIM analysis by the surgeon will not take more than several minutes, therefore not adding any significant time for patient to be under anesthesia. All specimens will be removed from the patient's body prior to their evaluation by the FLIM technique. Our team will not be making decisions based on FLIM analysis during this early phase of study. In other words, even if FLIM suggests a positive margin still exists in the body, our team will not act on these results by resecting additional tissue at this stage. FLIM margin results will be compared directly with pathology results for accuracy of the findings.
GPs in primary care in England currently refer over 2.17 million patients per year with vague symptoms to the urgent cancer referral pathway. While this catches over 150,000 cancer cases each year, 93% of the referred patients do not have cancer. For breast cancer, GPs refer 343,000 cases per year. Each of these patients are referred to a one stop clinic for diagnosis. The Leeds teaching Hospitals' Trusts' Breast Unit, receives 10,000 per year, with only 5% of patients actually being diagnosed with cancer. The breast cancer pathway involves a triple assessment process, which includes a clinical examination, imaging (mammogram or ultrasound) and possibly a biopsy test. It is a particularly expensive process as it is an imagingintense pathway; this places considerable strain on NHS diagnostic facilities. Small changes will not be enough to solve this problem - a new approach is needed. The purpose of this study is to see if we can develop a blood test that can support doctors in identifying patients for whom the likelihood of having breast cancer is extremely low. This would avoid unnecessary referral for those patients to the one stop clinic. Patients with higher chances of suspected breast cancer would be referred to the one stop clinic in the usual way. Key to the idea of safely "ruling-out" patients is that the test must not miss patients who do have cancer. By measuring a broad range of indicators (markers) in blood, the test will provide a more accurate picture of the underlying biology. The test is also being developed within the NHS, so that it can be adopted quickly into NHS computer systems and laboratories to maximise patient benefit, whilst being held to the NHS's high standards for clinical evidence and value.
Inflammation has been consistently associated with psychoneurological symptoms (PNS) among breast cancer survivors (BCS). Evidence supporting interventional strategies promoting symptom-self management in reducing inflammation-induced PNS in BCS is limited. Current guidelines for BCS encourage the consumption of foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids. The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), abundantly available in fish, has a role in inflammatory downregulation. Low dietary DHA has been associated with inflammation and fatigue in BCS. Dietary planning targeting increased fish consumption thereby reducing red and processed meats are components of the major nutritional recommendations for BCS. A critical gap exists in knowledge regarding interventions promoting adherence to dietary guidelines in BCS supporting PNS self-management. This investigation uses personalized meal planning among BCSs (n=150) who are 1-2 years post-treatment for early-stage breast cancer and experiencing PNS (pain, fatigue, depression, sleep disturbance, stress) to evaluate the feasibility of a personalized meal planning approach in supporting adherence to current dietary guidelines for BCS. As a first step in this program of research, we will evaluate the feasibility of an personalized meal planning approach in promoting adherence to dietary guidelines for BCS through evaluating the feasibility of a personalized meal planning approach in a cohort of BCSs with respect to recruitment, group allocation, salivary inflammatory quantification and receptivity to and adherence with dietary interventions. This investigation will also contribute to a preliminarily evaluation of the efficacy of high or low fish diet in reducing inflammation (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-a) and PNS symptoms. Nationally, there is a priority for the development of personalized health strategies supporting self-management of adverse symptoms. This investigation focused on PNS in BCS is an initial step in generating new knowledge in efficacious approaches toward guiding decisions on dietary behavior change strategies that are personalized, cost-effective, and sustainable.
Post-Mastectomy Pain Syndrome (PMPS) is a chronic pain that persists for more than three months after a surgical breast procedure. It has 11-70% incidence in patients that underwent a breast surgery. It consists of mixed pain, frequently associated with myofascial pain, an specific type of muscular pain. Trigger point injections (TPI) are classically used for the treatment of myofascial pain in other painful conditions. However, there are no controlled trials assessing the efficacy of TPI in the treatment of PMPS. The intervention objective is to assess the efficacy of TPI in patients with PMPS, when associated with a comprehensive rehabilitation program and pain management.
Nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) with immediate reconstruction is one of the standard of care surgical treatments of breast cancer (BC) and is used for risk reduction in patients with a high risk for BC. While this method shows satisfactory oncologic and good cosmetic outcomes, its drawbacks include compromise of the skin flap vascularization due to skin incision, nipple-areolar complex (NAC) malposition/distortion and visible scar on the breast. NSM also has technical challenges of dissecting and removing larger specimens through limited incisions and concerns regarding oncologic effectiveness due to difficulties in visualizing regions of the breast remote from the incision. To improve cosmetic outcomes after NSM, a modification of this technique using a surgical robotic system was recently described. In a limited number of studies, the robotic NSM (RNSM) with immediate prosthetic breast reconstruction (IPBR) was shown to be feasible and safe, as well as led to excellent cosmetic outcomes and patient satisfaction. There are limited number of centers in North America and none in Canada that offer RNSM-IPBR. The investigators hypothesize that RNSM-IPBR is a feasible and safe technique that can be utilized in our institution and that it can provide superior cosmetic outcomes with less morbidity and higher patient satisfaction compared to the traditional NSM-IPBR. The aim is to conduct a single-arm prospective study to investigate the safety and feasibility, as well as cosmetic, surgical complication and patient satisfaction parameters of NSM-IPBR performed in the University Health Network (UHN). This study will serve a foundation for potential introduction of a novel surgical approach in our institution and will make it available for treatment and prevention of breast cancer in Canadian women. The study will also serve as pilot data for future potential studies, including randomized-controlled trials (RCT) comparing RNSM with conventional NSM. As such, the study will further our approach to innovation in breast surgical oncology within Canada and North America.
Background: A person s white blood cells can be modified in a lab to recognize certain changes in their tumor. Many of these cells are collected from the person, modified, then given back to the person. This may help treat some cancers. Objective: To learn if a person s white blood cells modified with T-cell receptors can cause solid tumors to shrink. Eligibility: People ages 18-70 who have cancer of the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, ovary, breast, or lung that has spread, or who have glioblastoma. Design: Participants will be screened and have their cells prepared for treatment in another protocol. Participants will be hospitalized one week before treatment. They will stay approximately 3 - 4 weeks after treatment. Participants will get the modified white blood cells and chemotherapy through an IV catheter, which is a small plastic tube inserted in a vein. Participants will take drugs by mouth to prevent infection. They will receive filgrastim as a shot or injection under the skin. Participants will have tests before, during, and after treatment: Heart, blood, and urine tests Chest X-ray Physical exam Scans: They will lie in a machine that takes pictures of the body. Possible apheresis: The participant s blood is removed through a needle in an arm. The blood goes through a machine that removes the white blood cells. The rest of the blood is returned through a needle in the other arm. Participants will have visits about 6 and 12 weeks after treatment. If they are responding to treatment, they will then have visits every 3-6 months for 3 years. Then they will join another study and be followed about 12 more years.
This study aims to characterize patient experience, satisfaction and preference for use of the QT Scanner in comparison to mammography by directly engaging women who have experience with both technologies.
This trial studies photoacoustic imaging of the breast in patients with breast cancer and healthy subjects. Dense breasts typically reduce the sensitivity of a mammography and also is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer. Photoacoustic tomography combines light and sound to provide more information about breast tissue.
Comparative Evaluation of Gen1B (OA-16-1S) duplex OA/US probe versus Gen1 (OA-16-1) duplex OA/US probe in Healthy Subjects