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This research aims to determine whether selenium supplements improve bone and muscle health in older women at risk of osteoporosis (low bone density or weak bones) and fracture (broken bones). Osteoporosis is a major public health problem. One in two women and one in five men over age 50 will have a fracture. Fractures cause pain, disability and reduce life-expectancy. Women with below-average bone density around the time of the menopause might have previously taken hormone replacement (HRT) to prevent osteoporosis, but HRT is much less used now due to side effects. Therefore there is a need for safe, effective and inexpensive preventative interventions for women at risk of osteoporosis. Selenium is a chemical nutrient present in several human proteins, including anti-oxidants. Anti-oxidants may protect against ageing of tissues, including bone, by mopping up damaging reactive oxygen molecules (sometimes called 'free radicals'). Selenium is present in soil, and so is obtained from many foods. However, soil selenium levels are low in Europe, and dietary intake in the UK is below recommended levels. We previously found that women with higher blood selenium levels have stronger bones, but this doesn't prove that giving selenium will improve bone strength. We propose a randomised controlled trial to compare selenium supplements with a placebo (dummy treatment) in women with below-average bone density. We will give selenium (at two different doses) or placebo to 120 women for six months and use blood and urine tests and bone density scans to see if giving selenium does have any effect on bone. We will also do muscle function tests and measurements of free radical molecules.
Postmenopausal women often seek non-pharmacologic interventions for the protection of bone health. Previous research in humans and rodents has indicated that dietary dried plum consumption may be beneficial for bone health, especially in postmenopausal women. However, it is unknown in what quantity dried plums need to be consumed to be of benefit and through what mechanisms dried plums act to impact bone health. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of 52 weeks of dried plums consumption in varying quantities on bone mineral density (BMD), bone geometry, and estimated bone strength in postmenopausal women. The investigators also seek to evaluate the mechanisms underlying the effects of dried plums as a dietary supplement by assessing polyphenols and the bioavailable conjugated metabolites in the urine of postmenopausal women taking different doses of dietary dried plums. The investigators aim to further investigate the mechanisms of dried plum action on bone by measuring markers of bone metabolism in response to dried plum consumption.
Design: Double-blind placebo controlled randomised multicenter international strategic trial of older women on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) containing tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with HIV RNA suppression for > 6 months to : 1. Immediate switch of TDF/FTC to tenofovir alafenamide-emtricitabine (TAF/FTC) while continuing the third antiretroviral agent.; 2. Delayed switch; with switch of TDF/FTC to TAF/FTC at 48 weeks while continuing the third agent. Follow up of all subjects to 96 weeks. Subject Population: The anticipated sample size is 128 HIV infected women aged 45-55 years (peri or early post menopause). . Primary endpoint: Percentage change from baseline bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine at weeks 48 and 96. Secondary Endpoints: BMD change at hip, trabecular bone score, estimated bone strength by high resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (HR-pQCT), muscle quality, geriatric assessment; biomarkers of bone, immune activation and inflammation; HIV viral suppression; safety, lipid and renal function, cardiovascular risk scores at weeks 48 and 96. Expected Outcomes: To determine if a switch from TDF/FTC to TAF?FTC improves BMD to a degree correlating with a decreased risk of fragility fracture in aging HIV infected women. Secondary outcomes will assess bone strength using new imaging modalities, timing of switch, and renal health. This data will be used by health policy makers and providers to determine the proper use of TAF?FTC in the aging HIV population.
In this study spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS), which allows the collection of Raman spectra through turbid media, is being applied to collect Raman spectra of bone. The principal aim to find ways to use Raman spectroscopy to assess bone quality in vivo.
The investigators evaluated the effect of initial periodontal treatment on clinical findings and receptor activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with osteoporosis under bisphosphonate therapy within 12 months' follow-up. Clinical recordings and GCF were obtained from postmenopausal women; with chronic periodontitis and osteoporosis (Group A, n=13), with chronic periodontitis and no osteoporosis (Group B, n=12), without chronic periodontitis and osteoporosis (Group C, n=12), systemically and periodontally healthy controls (Group D, n=10) at the baseline. Recordings were repeated at the 1st, 6th and 12th months in Group A, B and C. RANKL and OPG values were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
The investigators' previous studies in 2014 and 2015 have demonstrated that among community-dwelling older adults with high osteoporotic fracture risks. many sarcopenia indices can be improved and bone mineral density (BMD) maintained with different exercise programs. In 2016, the investigators aim to determine the effects of 2 exercise interventions on posture corrections and further improvement of sarcopenic indices
Usually, cervical spine fractures are not considered as osteoporotic fractures. However, recent studies show that odontoid fractures are the most common fractures of the cervical spine in elderly and may occur in a context of low trauma energy. Thus, the goal of this observationnal study is : - to describe the different type of odontoid fracture and to characterize bone status in elderly patient (>65 y) who underwent odontoid fracture in a context of low trauma energy. - To describe short and long term outcomes
Patients with Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are known to present an increased risk of osteoporosis and cardiovascular calcification. It has also been suggested that bone remodelling and cardiovascular calcification are regulated by the same mechanisms, but inversely in terms of calcium deposition, as osteoporosis is often associated with cardiovascular calcification. Inflammatory and immune factors have been implicated in these two processes. The role of the RANKL/OPG system in osteoclast differentiation has been elucidated over the last ten years. RANKL induces differentiation of monocytes-macrophages into osteoclasts, while, inversely, OPG exerts an inhibitory role by inactivating RANKL. Differentiation of smooth muscle cells into osteoblasts in the vessel wall induces calcification, and this phenomenon is counterbalanced by differentiation of monocytes into osteoclasts. Although the role of the RANKL/OPG ratio in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis has now been clearly established, its role in vascular calcification is only hypothetical at the present time. This study will focus on patients with SLE diagnosed and followed in the Amiens University Hospital Internal Medicine and Nephrology departments
Aim of this study is to evaluate in a population of old osteoporotic chronic kidney disease females the effect of denosumab: - on bone mineral density (femoral T-score) at 24 months - on bone mineral density evolution (femoral T-score) after 24 months of follow-up - on bone mineral density evolution (lumbar T-score) after 24 months of follow-up - on coronary and abdominal aorta calcification scores evolution after 24 months of follow-up - on parameters of bone remodelling (OPG, RANKL, sclerostin, DKK-1), of mineral and calcium metabolism (FGF23 Ct, Klotho, PTH, 25(OH) vitamin D3, phosphorus, calcium, bone alklaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, CTX), of inflammation (CRP) after 24 months of follow-up - on cardiovascular morbidity (cardiovascular events) and mortality after 24 months of follow-up - the tolerance after 24 months of follow-up
A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effect of 6 months treatment with Romosozumab compared to placebo by determining the percent changes in bone mineral density