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In acute myocardial infarction, early restoration of blood flow to the jeopardized myocardium is of paramount importance to limit infarct size and to improve long term outcome. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is the treatment of choice in these patients. Despite achievement of adequate epicardial coronary artery reperfusion in many patients, transient or persistent myocardial microvascular dysfunction is often present, also referred to as the no-reflow phenomenon. This microvascular dysfunction and the time course during which it recovers, is most likely also related to long term outcome. If microvascular reperfusion is still limited immediately after myocardial infarction but recovers quickly in the days thereafter, this might be beneficial for long term prognosis. Several treatments have been suggested to limit microvascular injury and to improve microvascular reperfusion in the acute phase of myocardial infarction (such as intra-aortic balloon pumping, glycoprotein IIB/IIIA inhibitors, adenosine, verapamil, nitroglycerine, cyclosporine, or gap-junction-inhibitors), but it has been difficult to assess the effect of such treatment due to the simple fact that no methodology has been available for quantitative assessment of the microcirculation of the heart. Assessment of microvascular perfusion and function has been very difficult so far and has been hampered by a number of methodological and technical shortcomings. Measurement of absolute blood flow in the infarcted area and true quantitative calculation of absolute resistance in acute myocardial infarction, has been introduced in the last years using a technique with thermodilution and continuous infusion of small amounts of saline. This technique offers the possibility to study the course of microvascular (dys)function after acute myocardial infarction with potentially important implications for treatment at follow-up. Technical performance of such measurements was difficult so far because of a complex instrumentation and the necessity of additional administration of intravenous adenosine. In the last 2 years, this technique has been largely simplified by the introduction of a new multipurpose monorail infusion catheter (RayFlow ®, Hexacath, Paris) and the observation that saline infusion of 15-20 ml/min in itself already ensures maximum coronary hyperemia. Finally, easy to handle software has been developed for online interpretation of such measurements. Consequently, measurement of absolute blood flow and myocardial resistance has become easy to perform now and the complete measurements only take a few minutes in addition to a regular PPCI or Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) measurement. The measurements are absolutely safe, reproducible, only a small amount of saline (100 ml at room temperature) is needed, no additional medication is necessary, the patient doesn't experience any discomfort of the measurement and the measurements can be repeated multiple times within minutes. Therefore, a window is opened for further examination and quantitative assessment of the microcirculation of the heart. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate changes in myocardial resistance over time in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) patients, both in the early stage and the subacute phase. Furthermore, the course of such changes and recovery of the microcirculation will be correlated to long-term outcome as assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurements and final infarct size. It is hypothesized that patients can be divided into 3 groups: A. Patients with an (almost) normal resistance and flow immediately after PPCI B. Patients with still elevated resistance and decreased flow immediately after PPCI, but (partial) recovery in the next days C. Patients with elevated resistance and decreased flow immediately after PPCI which do not recover at all. The investigators would like to evaluate changes in microvascular resistance of the infarcted area in the first hour after ST-elevation myocardial infarction and during the recovery period (<5 days). Classify patients according to recovery of microvascular resistance and relate the (recovery of) microvascular resistance to outcome and preservation of left ventricular function (with MRI, echo and clinical follow-up at 1 year).
Psychological processes play a complex role in the pathophysiology of many diseases. However, the body and emotional perception of patients and the relationship between dreams and disease still need to be investigated. The investigators planned an observational and controlled research aimed at assessing some previously unaddressed baseline psychological characteristics and their changes at 1 and 5 years after a short-term psychotherapy in carefully characterised patients with heart or oncologic diseases . The patients that will be enrolled are: - 50 patients ≤ 75 year old with acute myocardial infarction; - 30 patients ≤ 75 year old with Tako-Tsubo syndrome; - 50 women ≤ 75 year old, recently operated on breast cancer: - 90 control subjects of the same age and gender of the enrolled patients, without relevant pathologies during the last 10 years. Relevant pathologies are defined as those that required a hospitalisation or a long-lasting medical therapy. At the enrolment all the subjects will undergo a complete medical evaluation, and the following psychometric tests: Self-evaluation test, Social Support Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI II), MacNew Heart Disease Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI 2). In two distinct following meetings, an open questionnaire exploring the body and emotional perception, and another exploring past and recent dreams, will be administered. The same evaluation will be done for the healthy subjects. After the initial evaluation, all the patients will be given the choice to start a short-term psychotherapy lasting 6 months on top of medical therapy or to continue classic medical therapy only. Healthy subjects will be not offered the possibility to follow psychotherapy. At first year of follow-up, the battery of psychometric test, and the two questionnaires exploring the body and emotional perception, and changes and characteristics of dreams during the psychotherapy, will be re-administered. The following data will be evaluated: Psychological characteristics at follow-up. Incidence of new relevant medical events Quality of life Relationship between psychological characteristics and health status, and quality of life At 5 year follow-up psychometric tests and the clinical data will be evaluated in all the groups.
The investigators propose to perform a randomized clinical trial comparing prasugrel vs. ticagrelor in 60 patients with ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The principal objective of the study would be analyzing the difference in myocardial infarction size measured by cardiac magnetic resonance at 6 months
The study aims to assess for the first time, through the application of innovative technologies (micro-CT), important characteristics of aspirated thrombi (such as their volume and their density), which might be linked to certain clinical outcomes, in patients presenting with STEMI and referred for primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI). To this end, a methodology for the exact estimation of thrombus burden by measuring the volume and the density of aspirated thrombi will be developed. After being aspirated using dedicated catheters, thrombi will be preserved in formalin and their volume and their density will be calculated with the use of micro-CT. Having a better resolution than conventional computed tomography, micro-CT will allow us to create 3D models of aspirated thrombi from a series of x-ray projection images. These 3D models will be further analyzed in order to find the volume and the density of aspirated thrombi. Shape analysis of the surface of aspirated thrombi and potential differences in their structure will also be assessed. Correlation of these variables with clinical parameters and angiographic outcomes will be attempted. Thus, a risk-stratification model will be developed combining: - Clinical and laboratory data, - Angiographic parameters, - Data regarding the volume, the density and the composition of aspirated thrombi. This model will enable the stratification of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk of patients and the identification of who will benefit from thrombus aspiration, providing a personalized approach in treating patients with STEMI.
The innovation in this preliminary study is the use of message reminders in patients after myocardial infarction in stage I of rehabilitation (ie discharge from hospital) at home via SMS, compared with studies of patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation (stage II)in the hospital physiotherapy department.
Background: Unfractionated heparin (UFH) is a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from porcine intestinal mucosa that enhances the inhibitory activity of the natural anticoagulant antithrombin towards most activated clotting factors (F), particularly FXa and FIIa (thrombin) (1,2). Despite the growing interest for low molecular weight derivatives (LMWH), UFH is still widely used for different indications including the treatment of acute thrombosis including venous thromboembolism, coronary syndromes (ACS), and other thrombotic diseases (3). UFH is administered by parenteral route either intravenous (IV) or sub-cutaneous (SC).Actually, there is evidence that the risk of recurrence of thrombosis is increased when heparin levels fells below the lower limit of the therapeutic range, while the hemorrhagic risk increases with heparin levels above the upper limit of the therapeutic range. Moreover, the anticoagulant response to UFH is highly variable for one individual to another (4). As the clinical efficacy of heparin is dependent on maintaining an anticoagulant effect above a minimum level, careful laboratory monitoring of UFH treatment is mandatory (3). For that purpose, two options are offered to the clinicians: i) to evaluate either the prolongation of a global clotting assay, the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and ii) to measure the heparin-enhanced inhibitory activity of AT toward purified activated factors such as FIIa and FXa using chromogenic substrate-based assays (3). UFH therapy is still widely monitored by the aPTT, a global clotting assay, that reflects the ability of heparin to enhance the inhibitory activity of AT against FIIa, FXa, and other activated factors. The therapeutic range of aPTT prolongation is highly dependent on the reagent and analyzer used. As the consequence, it must be defined by each laboratory in its own technical conditions (for each reagent batch) to correlate with heparin levels between 0.20 and 0.40 U/mL (protamine sulfate titration), corresponding to anti-FXa activity between 0.30 and 0.70 IU/mL (3). In that connection, the prolongation of aPTT corresponding to antiFXa activity between 0.30 - 0.70 IU/mL is highly variable depending of the reagents e.g.between 1.6 - 2.7 x control for weakly sensitive reagents and between 3.7 - 6.2 x control for highly sensitive reagents (5). The use of aPTT has advantages as it is easy-to-perform, quick, inexpensive but faces numerous challenges due to the significant influence of the technical conditions (reagent/instrument) on the test result, to lot-lot variation in reagent sensitivity, to the need of studies to evaluate the therapeutic range, to limited therapeutic range, and also to non-specific prolongation in the case of lupus anticoagulant, factors deficiency, inhibitors or shortening in the case of high factor levels, particularly FVIII.In contrast, the use of chromogenic anti-Xa assays has many advantages particularly a published therapeutic range for UFH i.e. between 0.30 and 0.70 IU/mL, a specificity to its interaction with AT (no Heparin Cofactor II interference by using bovine FIIa or short incubation time) and faces few challenges such as limited availability in some area and a cost that is slightly higher than that of aPTT (6). In addition, anti-Xa assays allow accurate measurement of all heparin(s) derivatives and particularly LMWHs and fondaparinux. Since the first reports in the mid-eighties, some small sized studies have compared the two monitoring strategies mainly retrospectively designed (7-11). Even though, one single prospective randomized management study evaluated the comparison between the two monitoring strategies with clinical end-points i.e. recurrence of thrombosis and bleeding complication in a cohort of 131 patients with VTE (12). All concluded to a trend toward higher, or at least similar, safety/efficacy/efficiency when patients were monitored using antiXa activity vs. aPTT. Even though differences were not significant due to the lack of power of these studies.
Serum uric acid level is a commonly measured biomarker. The association between serum uric acid level and the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases has been observed in some studies, while others showed controversial results. Estimation of this association may help to predict cardiovascular outcomes and may guide new treatment strategies. The hypothesis is that increased serum uric acid level is associated with a range of cardiovascular diseases.
This study occurs in two phases. Phase 1 involves initial item development and measurement validation of a new tool for identifying hospitalized patients at high risk for preventable readmission. Primary tasks include item construction and content validation, data collection, analysis, and instrument refinement. Phase 2 involves administering the refined instrument to a new group of patients to determine final item content for the instrument, its factor structure, and its predictive validity.
Chest pain is a common presenting complaint at the Emergency Department (ED). Many of these patients undergo lengthy assessments in the ED or are admitted which contributes to ED and hospital crowding as well as a substantial health care burden. The now commonly used high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays enable faster rule-out of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) recommend the use of a 0h/1h high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) protocol, but all studies so far have been observational. The safety and effectiveness of the protocol when implemented in routine care is thus unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the safety and effectiveness of the ESC 0h/1h hs-cTnT protocol, supplemented with clinical assessment and ECG, when implemented in routine care.
Clopidogrel is a prescription medicine used to minimize blood clot formation in patients with cardiovascular disease, particularly those undergoing heart catheterization and stroke. A substantial amount of medical evidence has proven that patients with stroke or heart diseases can benefit from this medicine. However, significant variability in such expected benefits has been found among individuals receiving Clopidogrel, with some patients not having the benefit of reduced complications and adverse cardiovascular events. Prior studies have demonstrated a significant association between certain variants on patient's genes (e.g., CYP2C19) and poor response to Clopidogrel and, therefore, major adverse cardiovascular events. Variation in other genes and other factors such as platelet activation, weight, diabetes mellitus (a medical condition that produces high blood sugar), concomitant use of other drugs and smoking status have also been proposed to be related with the same adverse outcomes. In this study the investigators would like to determine a possible association between these genes and the response to the medication among Caribbean Hispanic cardiovascular patients on Clopidogrel. In other population, it is known that patients with certain genetic variants have lower or magnified response to this medication when compared to those individuals taking the same dose and not carrying the genetic variations. However, a fundamental gap remains in understanding whether the genomic diversity of Caribbean Hispanics accounts for the observed high inter-individual variability of clinical outcomes to preventive dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with Clopidogrel.