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The proposed study will investigate the clinical use of the ISCDX test that may differentiate between diverse stroke etiologies as listed below: Aim 1: Differentiate between cardioembolic and large artery atherosclerotic ischemic strokes, when hemorrhagic stroke is ruled out, as defined by TOAST classification of subtypes of acute ischemic stroke. Aim 2: In cases of ischemic strokes of unknown or "cryptogenic" etiology, determine the ability of biomarker blood tests to predict etiology between cardioembolic and large artery atherosclerotic.
Recently, ultrashort echo time (UTE) MR, which allows detection of the ultrashort T2 components, has been used to image plaque calcification in ex vivo carotid and coronary arteries. The results demonstrated that UTE images are able to identify plaque calcification and enables accurate quantification of calcium volumes. However, gadolinium-based contrast agents during in vivo CMR could not be performed in these ex vivo study. Agnese et al. believed that calcifications with 18F-NaF PET uptake might be considered to represent dormant areas where on-going mineralization, which is a key sign to identify and localise ruptured and high risk coronary plaque. We, therefore, hypothesize that enhanced carotid calcification presented by UTE MR may be a critical sign for symptomatic patients. In this study, we will investigate the feasibility of enhanced UTE MR in human carotid arteries in vivo. Furthermore, we analyzed the correlation between UTE MR and microcalcification of in the carotid plaques. Based on the diagnostic ability of enhanced UTE MR for microcalcification, we will investigate the potential of enhanced calcification to distinguish symptomatic from asymptomatic patients with carotid atherosclerosis and research the prognostic ability of enhance calcufication in UTE MR.
The purpose of this multiple-center study are: 1) To establish the ultrasound criteria for evaluating vulnerable plaques by comparing the plaque echo characteristics before CEA (carotid artery endarterectomy) and plaque specimen after CEA. 2) To establish the carotid artery recanalization strategies based on the evaluation results of carotid artery and intracranial artery by color doppler flow imaging and TCCS/TCD (transcranial color coded sonography/transcranial doppler). 3) To compare the success rate and the incidence of restenosis between CEA and carotid artery stenting.
Intracranial atherosclerotic disease is the most common cause of ischemic stroke that is directly attributed to the progression or rupture of intracranial high-risk plaque in Asia. Many studies mainly from Euro-American population with a focus on extracranial carotid plaque have fully demonstrated the advantages of intensive statin therapy on stabilizing or reversing plaque burden, reversing plaque composition presenting that lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC) is gradually replaced by fibrous tissue, and even reversing pattern of arterial remodeling to reduce the occurrence of cerebrovascular events. Yet, direct evidence of the effect of intensive statin therapy on intracranial atherosclerotic plaques is lacking and the effect of statin intensity and duration on intracranial plaque burden and composition is still unclear. High resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HRMRI) is a new and non-invasive technique that enable to assess the morphologic characteristics of vascular wall and plaque composition of intracranial artery. Based on above discussion, the investigators conduct this study to further determine the effect of intensive statin in ischemic stroke with intracranial atherosclerotic plaques.
The aim of GEOMETRY study is to investigate the correlation between coronary plaque geometric modifications and lesion vulnerability in patients with suspected coronary artery disease referred for cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Furthermore the study will evaluate the impact of plaque eccentricity and morphology on the rate of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) for a 2 years follow-up period.
Approximately 50% of coronary events occur in previously asymptomatic patients. Thus, the early detection of the individuals at higher risk became an important research target within the current cardiology. The various clinical scores used present a predictive accuracy for ischemic events, evaluated by the ROC curve, which ranges from 0.73 to 0, 79. Therefore, the introduction of new non-invasive techniques for the detection of atherosclerosis aims to allow a more adequate classification of risk. The development of radiological techniques, fundamentally coronary angiotomography of multiple detectors (CAMD) and electron beam computed tomography-EBCT‖, demonstrated that the degree of coronary calcification correlates with endothelial lesion and individual prognosis in the long term. Notably, the calcium score has a weak correlation with the severity of coronary stenosis per se, possibly due to variations in arterial remodeling due to coronary calcification. On the other hand, the CAMD allows the detection of a small magnitude atheromatous disease, not diagnosed clinically, nor by tests provoking ischemia, or even by coronary catheterization. The clinical relevance of the small magnitude atheromatous disease diagnosed by the ACMD and its correlation with plaque vulnerability markers, mainly platelet aggregation, vascular reactivity, and inflammation are still not well determined. This is a case and control study and we will enrolled 90 patients with low and medium risk of cardiovascular event whose cases should present discrete plaques in the CAMD e controls should present none plaque in coronary stenosis
The aim of this trial will be to test and validate the value of scintigraphy with injection of 99mTc-Annexin-V-128 for the detection of complicated carotid plaques
• The aim of the VIP study is to investigate the impact of vulnerability markers (inflammatory serum biomarkers for systemic vulnerability, coronary shear stress and vulnerability mapping for pancoronary vulnerability, and imaging-based plaque features for systemic vulnerability) on the rate of major adverse cardiovascular events caused by progression of the non-culprit lesion in patients with acute ST or non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction who undergo revascularization of the culprit lesion during the acute event. Furthermore, the study will evaluate the rate of progression of non-culprit lesions towards a higher degree of vulnerability, based on coronary computed tomography angiographic assessment at 1 year after enrollment.
the purpose of this study is to show that alirocumab with statin therapy have a s tronger stabilizing effect on vulnerable plaque in coronary artery disease than statin alone administration
The investigators plan to evaluate the correlation between carotid plaque enhancement on Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), significant coronary artery disease (CAD), and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in a systematic manner. The investigators hypothesize that increased levels of CEUS-detected vulnerable carotid plaque will be predictive of CV risk determined by angiography and future cardiovascular events.