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The circadian regulation in mammals have been known for a long time. A special group of clock genes, organized in feedback loops, are responsible for the circadian regulation in both the SCN and peripheral organs. The central clock is mainly entrained by the light-dark cycle, while the peripheral ones in organs such as liver and intestine, are more influenced by the feeding-fasting cycles. The coordination of central and peripheral clocks is thought to be essential in the maintenance of physiological homeostasis.This study aim to investigate the association between biological rhythm and metabolism.
The study is testing a new medicine for weight control in people with overweight or obesity. The aim of the study is to find out how safe the study medicine is and how it works in the body. Participants will either get NNC9204-1706 (the new study medicine) or placebo (a dummy medicine) - which treatment participants get is decided by chance. NNC9204-1706 is a new medicine which cannot be prescribed by doctors. Participants will get an injection under the skin of participants' stomach each morning for 10 weeks. A medical tool called NovoPen®4 will be used for the injection. Participants must change the part of the pen including the medicine (the cartridge) each day. The study will last for about 16 weeks. Participants will have at least 17 clinic visits and 10 phone calls with the study doctor. At certain times during the study, participants will have blood drawn and 3 different kinds of heart tests (electrocardiograms). Study doctor will ask participants to answer mental health surveys.
Advances in modern medicine and critical care interventions have greatly impacted survival of critically ill patients, but these interventions are not without consequences. Although patients may now survive the initial critical illness, these patients may not recover to their pre-illness baseline state of health. Recent data in both the critically ill adult and neonatal patients who survive sepsis or surgical events have been shown to progress to persistent inflammatory, immunosuppressed, catabolic syndrome (PICS). This was first identified in adult trauma patients, and more recently was defined in critically ill neonates. To date, there are no published reports of PICS in the critically ill pediatric population. Our long-term goal is to understand PICS in the pediatric population and how early medical and nutritional interventions may impact overall morbidity and survival. To achieve this goal first PICS must first be characterized in the pediatric population. The hypothesis is that PICS occurs in pediatric patients and is associated with increased time to return to a baseline functional life post-injury or illness. The hypothesis will be tested by pursuing the following specific aims. Specific Aim 1: To determine the incidence of PICS in the pediatric population and associate the diagnosis of PICS to survival and time to return to baseline functional life and Specific Aim 2: To determine if early increased inflammatory and immunosuppressive markers are associated with the development of PICS and increased morbidity and mortality. These aims will be accomplished by conducting a prospective single-center observational pilot study to enroll pediatric patients with an anticipated pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay greater than 14 days. Through these two aims, the investigators anticipate that this research will provide an explanation into the interplay of inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism in critically ill children, which is imperative to the development of early therapeutic and nutritional interventions that can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with critical illness.
This study will look at the change in participant's body weight from the start to the end of the study. This is to compare the effect on body weight in people taking semaglutide (a new medicine) and people taking "dummy" medicine. In addition to taking the medicine, the participant will have talks with study staff about healthy food choices, how to be more physically active and what a participant can do to lose weight. The participant will get semaglutide for the first 20 weeks. Then the participant will get either semaglutide or "dummy" medicine - which treatment the participant gets after the 20 weeks is decided by chance. The participants will need to take 1 injection once a week. The study medicine is injected with a thin needle in a skin fold in the stomach, thigh or upper arm. The study will last for about 1.5 years.
This study will look at the change in participants' body weight from the start to the end of the study. The weight loss in participants taking semaglutide (a new medicine) will be compared to the weight loss of participants taking "dummy" medicine. In addition to taking the medicine, participants will have talks with study staff about healthy food choices, how to be more physically active and what you can do to lose weight. Participants will either get semaglutide or "dummy" medicine - which treatment participants get, is decided by chance. Participants will need to take 1 injection once a week. The study medicine is injected with a thin needle in a skin fold in the stomach, thigh or upper arm. The study will last for about 1.5 years. Participants will have 15 clinic visits and 10 phone calls with the study doctor.
This study looks at a new study medicine for weight control in people with overweight or obesity. The aim of this study is to see if the study medicine is safe for people to take. The study also looks at how fast the body removes the study medicine. The participants will either get NNC0194-0499 (the study medicine) or placebo (a formula that looks like the medicine but does not have active ingredients). Which treatment the participants get is decided by chance. The participants will get 1 or more injections into the skin of stomach area once each week for 12 weeks. The study will last for about 4 to 5 months. The participants will have 18 visits to the clinic.
This study is conducted in Europe. The aim of this study is to investigate usage of liraglutide for weight management in clinical practice using the CPRD (Clinical Practice Research Datalink) primary care database.
Introduction Sarcopenia is defined as progressive generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and function. Sarcopenia due to lack of physical activity is a known phenomenon and is usually observed as a normal part of aging or in certain diseases and pathogenic processes. Major associated factors causing development of sarcopenia may be summarized as interactions of environmental and hormonal factors, underlying diseases, activation of inflammatory pathways, mitochondrial dysfunction, reduced satellite cell numbers, and loss of neuromuscular junctions. Intensive care acquired weakness (ICU-AW) known formerly as critical illness polyneuropathy, is a diagnosis that becomes more common as survival rates from long ICU hospitalization are more prevalent. It is characterized by a primary axonal degeneration, without demyelination, that typically affects motor nerves more than sensory nerves. ICU-AW affects the limbs (particularly the lower extremities) in a symmetric pattern. Weakness is most notable in proximal neuromuscular areas (e.g., the shoulders and hip girdle). In addition, involvement of the respiratory muscles can occur and can impede weaning from mechanical ventilation. The pathophysiological mechanisms of ICU-acquired weakness are believed to be multifactorial. Some suspected factors include dysfunctional microcirculation and hyperglycemia. It has been shown that tight glucose control in ICU patients reduces the risk for ICU-AW (although it has been associated with other adverse events). Sodium channels channelopathy is also a researched cause for ICU-AW. Muscle loss in the ICU are usually related to bedridden condition and lack of mobility, increase in ubiquitination and inadequate protein administration associated with large negative nitrogen balance. In addition mechanical ventilation contributes greatly to this problem. This has been particularly relevant in post trauma/surgical long stayer patients. In the past years great progress was made in the investigation of protein balance, breakdown and synthesis using stable isotope tracers in various medical conditions. In a research performed in PICU (1-5) and ICU (6, 7) regarding the measurement of plasma amino acid during critical illness, stable phenylalanine, tyrosine leucine, arginine and citrulline isotope were used intravenously without any safety issue problem. Another study was performed on adults suffering from COPD with matched healthy adults, using stable isotopes of phenylalanine, tyrosine leucine, isoleucine and valine (8). During the study the isotopes were given parenterally as well as enterally. The study showed significant change in splanchnic extraction of various amino acids and higher turnover of BCAA in COPD patients. Using the theory that supplemental milk can compensate for the elevated turnover of BCAA in COPD patients, using the isotope analysis demonstrated that this theory was proven wrong and the conclusion was that alterations are present in BCAA metabolism despite normal plasma levels in normal weight COPD. Further research is needed to find a way to compensate for it. These studies and other recent studies (9-19) show us the safety regarding the use of stable isotope tracers whether IV or PO, while giving us the opportunity to assess the metabolism of amino acid in all sorts of pathological states. Hypothesis & Aim of the study We think that based on current literature, there are important differences between critically ill patients and healthy population in the amino acid profile and distribution in the body as well as synthesis and breakdown. The aim of the study is to measure these differences in long ICU stayers (above 7 days) admitted in the ICU after surgical/trauma injury, and to try and help aiming future treatment and research in this field.
This study looks at a new study medicine for weight management in people with overweight or obesity. The aim of this study is to find out how safe and tolerable the study medicine is. The study also looks at how the study medicine behaves in the body and how it is removed from the body. Participants will either get NNC9204-1177 (the new study medicine) or placebo (a formula that looks like the study medicine but does not have active ingredients). Which treatment participants get will be decided by chance. NNC9204-1177 has not been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Its use in this study is experimental. Participants will get 1 or more injections into the skin of the stomach area once each week for 12 weeks. The study will last for about 5 months. Participants will have 19 clinic visits with the study doctor. At certain times during the study, participants will have blood draws and 3 different kinds of electrocardiograms. Participants will answer mental health questionnaires. Women: Women cannot take part if pregnant, breast-feeding or plan to become pregnant during the study period.
In the present study the investigators compared the hormonal and metabolic effects of three meal loads very popular among Italian eating habits, both in the resting- and exercising state. Given the lack of time is considered a common barrier to exercise adherence, we wanted to identify a low dose of exercise capable to produce health benefits in the post-absorptive status elicited by three commonly consumed meal-models in Mediterranean countries. To this end, healthy young volunteers firstly underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and three meal tolerance tests. Secondly, in an extra set of experiments, subjects cycled at low intensity for the last 20 minutes of the same glucose/meal tolerance test. Glycemia, insulinemia, ghrelinemia, lipidemia, and satiety were measured throughout OGTT and each test-meal load.