View clinical trials related to Cocaine-Related Disorders.Filter by:
This study aims to measure synaptic density in the brains (including in ventral striatum [VS] and medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC]) of abstinent subjects with Cocaine Use Disorder (CUD) or Opiate Use Disorder (OUD) as compared to healthy control (HC) subjects using 11C-UCB-J PET. Subjects will undergo a single 11C-UCB-J (also known as 11C-APP311) PET scan. This would be the very first to image synaptic density in human cocaine and opiate users, thereby testing whether altered synaptic density in the rodent brain is recapitulated in CUD and OUD humans. If confirmed, the current study would provide compelling clinical-translational support for an important pathophysiological mechanism of addiction - aberrant structural synaptic plasticity. As such, the current study has considerable potential for advancing the neurobiological understanding of human cocaine and opiate addiction.
The proposed research program will investigate the changes in brain chemistry and circuitry that 're-wire' the brain during chronic cocaine use, promote relapse, and complicate treatment efforts. Currently-using and non-treatment-seeking individuals with a cocaine use disorder will undergo a cocaine self-administration paradigm 2-5 days prior to completing positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Cocaine abuse is associated with serious physical, psychiatric and social problems. Addiction results in the compulsive use of a substance with loss of control and persistence despite the negative consequences.The act of re-engaging in the search for drugs is called relapse and a particularly insidious aspect of addiction is that vulnerability to relapse lasts for many years after stopping drug use. The main reason why people continue to use cocaine is because of its influence on the reward system.Indeed, this substance makes it possible to increase the level of dopamine, particularly in the nucleus accumbens.This increase in dopamine is not related to the hedonic pleasure that consumption provides. Instead, it imprints a positive value to enhancers and facilitates the learning of reward associations through the modulation of the cortical and subcortical regions of the brain.In other words, it suggests that users become sensitive to a series of stimuli that combine with a rewarding feeling, which drives them to consume when they encounter them. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been used for a long time, mainly as mucolytic. It has also been used as a glutathione antioxidant precursor in the treatment of paracetamol overdose for more than 30 years. NAC has shown beneficial effects in animal models of cocaine addiction by reversing neuroplasticity and reducing the risk of restoring consumer behavior in rodents. Human studies show that NAC is potentially effective in preventing relapse in abstinent patients and ineffective in reducing current consumption. In this study the investigators will test a sample of newly detoxified (and therefore abstinent) patients who have taken a 3-4 week course of treatment, in order determine if NAC can be a useful medication candidate to avoid relapse in patients with cocaine dependence.
The goal of this study is to use [C-11]FLB 457 and amphetamine (oral, 0.5 mg/kg) to measure cortical dopamine transmission in cocaine dependent individuals and healthy controls
Crack addiction has become a severe public health problem in Brazil. Crack users present elevated prevalence rates of psychiatric comorbidities, sexual transmitted infections and unemployment with high probability of living or have lived in the streets, history of incarceration and engagement in illegal activities. For the last 20 years a treatment called Contingency Management (CM) have achieved the best results regarding reduction of substance use, promotion of abstinence, treatment attendance and retention in treatment. The first CM study conducted in Brazil advocates for the efficacy of CM on all of these outcomes, suggesting that CM can be effective in a Brazilian population of crack users.
Background: Cocaine use disorders (CUD) is a complex brain disorder, involving several brain areas and neurocircuits. Effective treatments for CUD are still needed. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) stimulates non-invasively parts of the brain. Preliminary data suggest that rTMS may help reducing cocaine craving and consumption. Researchers want to learn how the brain and the drug-seeking behavior may change with this treatment. Objectives: To test if rTMS can reduce cocaine craving and use, and also affect several mood, behavioral and cognitive alterations associated with prolonged cocaine use. Eligibility: Healthy, right-handed adults ages 18-65 who do have cocaine use disorder (moderate to severe). Design: This is a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study. The study includes three phases: 1) a rTMS continued treatment phase; a rTMS follow-up; and a no rTMS follow-up. Prior to participating, participants will be screened with: - Questionnaires - Medical history - Physical exam - Urine tests - MRI (structural) After being enrolled, baseline behavioral and imaging data will be collected. In particular, participants will undergo: - Questionnaires - Functional MRI During the continued rTMS phase, participants with cocaine use disorder will be randomized to receive real or fake rTMS. Repetitive TMS will be delivered during 10 outpatient treatment days, over 2 weeks (5 days/week). Following this phase, subjects will have 12 follow-up visits (once/weekly), during which they will receive rTMS, and behavioral and imaging assessments will be performed. At the end of the rTMS follow up period, participants will further receive 3 follow up visits (once a month), during which rTMS will not be performed, but behavioral data will be collected. Treatment includes: - rTMS: A coil is placed on the head. A brief electrical current passes through the coil. At each visit, participants will receive two rTMS sessions, with a 1hr interval between sessions. At the beginning of each rTMS session, they view cocaine-related images for few minutes. - MRIs at baseline and at follow-up visit #12: Participants lie on a table that slides into a cylinder that takes pictures of the brain. They respond to images while in the scanner. - Repeat of screening tests and questionnaires - Urine toxicological screen
In the United States, 1.5 million people abuse cocaine leading to a host of negative health and economic consequences, yet no FDA approved treatment exists. To develop effective treatments, the following must be considered: 1) do potential medications ameliorate brain disruptions associated with cocaine use? 2) are multiple, targeted treatments necessary? To meet these goals, innovative multi-modal neuroimaging will be used to determine whether rebalancing the serotonergic (5-HT) system reduces cocaine cue reactivity, impulsivity, and normalizes related neurochemistry and brain connectivity.
This will assess whether AFQ056 can have a beneficial effect by reducing cocaine use in Cocaine Use Disorder (CUD) patients as assessed by Timeline Follow-Back cocaine self-report.
The goal of this double-blind sham controlled study is to evaluate the effeicacy of continuous theta burst stimulation to the frontal pole as a tool to decrease drug cue reactivity and improve treatment outcomes in treatment-engaged cocaine and alcohol users. All participants will be randomized to receive 10 days of real or sham rTMS to the frontal pole. Brain imaging data and behavioral assessments will be collected at 4 time points - before TMS, after 10 days of TMS, 1 month follow up and 2 month follow up.
The purpose of Project 2 is to execute phase I functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies to assess the effects of lorcaserin on brain target engagement (measured by fMRI brain activation and neural connectivity) in cocaine use disorder (CocUD) subjects and/or opioid use disorder.