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Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of non-invasive brain stimulation in which low level electrical currents are applied to the scalp in order to alter brain function. In the present study, tDCS will be administered with the goal of assessing the tolerability and feasibility of this approach to 1) reduce an individual's level of drug craving and 2) provide evidence to support the use of this device by the patient for future unsupervised stimulation in a non-clinical setting. Research Questions: - Can tDCS be used successfully to train cocaine addicted individuals for self-administration purposes? - Can active tDCS be used to decrease drug craving in individuals with cocaine use disorders? - Does active tDCS outperform sham tDCS in reducing drug craving?
This study was an internal program effectiveness evaluation of the effects of a four-session weekly individualized cognitive therapy program (called the "Mind Freedom Plan" (MFP)) on substance use outcomes and substance abuse treatment retention in Veterans admitted to an intensive outpatient treatment program for substance abuse at the Richmond Veterans Administration Medical Center (RICVAMC). Substance use and treatment retention metrics of MFP-assigned Veterans were compared with those of Veterans assigned to typical case-management-oriented weekly individual sessions.
The goal of this study is to use [C-11]NPA and amphetamine (oral, 0.5 mg/kg) to measure striatal dopamine transmission in prenatal cocaine exposed subjects (PCE) and comparison subjects (COMP)
- Introduction: The Cocaine Base Paste (or Coca Paste or CBP), a highly toxic and addictive smokable drug (a by-product of the cocaine extraction chain), has become in the last years a real social scourge for Chile. Today, there is not a pharmacological treatment approved in Chile neither around the world for the management of the withdrawal syndrome nor the dependence caused by the use of this substance. The N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), a derivative of the amino acid cysteine, with mucolytic and antioxidant properties, used in Chile since several years for bronchopulmonary treatments, as well as a hepatic and renal protector, among others, has shown, in animal and human research, that has benefits to reduce the craving for cocaine and in the management of the withdrawal syndrome of this and other psychoactive substances. - Objectives: To evaluate whether the use of NAC in patients with problematic CBP consumption reduce the craving for this substance and prolong its abstinence time. - Methods: will be carried out a randomized, double-blind, controlled, phase II-b clinical trial, with a parallel group design with CBP dependent patients in different outpatient care units in the province of Concepción, Chile. Patients who meet the cocaine (CBP) consumption disorder criteria, who have used of CBP within the last month and who have started to use it one year at least prior to admission to the study, will be selected from among the consulting population. Patients who agree to participate in the study must sign an informed consent form before being clinically evaluated. During the evaluations, semi-structured interviews and standardized questionnaires were used to investigate both consumption habits and symptoms of withdrawal and intensity of CBP craving, among others. All patients in the study will be attended twice weekly to treatment centers for four weeks, reporting their craving for CBP, the use of this substance (as well as urine tests), adverse reactions to the indicated medication, among others. - Expected results: It is expected that, thanks to the use of NAC, patients with CBP use disorder entered to this study significantly reduce their craving to consume this substance, they can prolong the abstinence time of it and they can reduce their falls in CBP consumption.
High-relapse rates to addiction are likely due to motivational (limbic) and cognitive (executive) factors. The purpose of this proposal is to determine the relationship between functional connectivity in executive control regions (namely the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) and both proximal and extended outcomes in treatment seeking cocaine and opiate users. This longitudinal neuroimaging study will assess the integrity of executive and limbic circuits 4 timepoints before and after a 28-day intensive outpatient treatment program. Controls will also be recruited as a comparison group. The fundamental neuroscience knowledge gained from this proposal will be used to develop new evidence-based brain stimulation treatment strategies to enhance the integrity of these circuits and subsequent outcomes in traditional treatment programs. The purpose of this study is not only to look at the integrity of these circuits in individuals entering treatment but also to see how these circuits change after treatment and if this can be used to predict outcomes. From the larger societal perspective this research may help us determine which individuals are likely going to benefit the most from treatment and perhaps those that are at a greater risk for relapse.
This study aims to measure synaptic density in the brains (including in ventral striatum [VS] and medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC]) of abstinent subjects with Cocaine Use Disorder (CUD) or Opiate Use Disorder (OUD) as compared to healthy control (HC) subjects using 11C-UCB-J PET. Subjects will undergo a single 11C-UCB-J (also known as 11C-APP311) PET scan. This would be the very first to image synaptic density in human cocaine and opiate users, thereby testing whether altered synaptic density in the rodent brain is recapitulated in CUD and OUD humans. If confirmed, the current study would provide compelling clinical-translational support for an important pathophysiological mechanism of addiction - aberrant structural synaptic plasticity. As such, the current study has considerable potential for advancing the neurobiological understanding of human cocaine and opiate addiction.
The proposed research program will investigate the changes in brain chemistry and circuitry that 're-wire' the brain during chronic cocaine use, promote relapse, and complicate treatment efforts. Currently-using and non-treatment-seeking individuals with a cocaine use disorder will undergo a cocaine self-administration paradigm 2-5 days prior to completing positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Cocaine abuse is associated with serious physical, psychiatric and social problems. Addiction results in the compulsive use of a substance with loss of control and persistence despite the negative consequences.The act of re-engaging in the search for drugs is called relapse and a particularly insidious aspect of addiction is that vulnerability to relapse lasts for many years after stopping drug use. The main reason why people continue to use cocaine is because of its influence on the reward system.Indeed, this substance makes it possible to increase the level of dopamine, particularly in the nucleus accumbens.This increase in dopamine is not related to the hedonic pleasure that consumption provides. Instead, it imprints a positive value to enhancers and facilitates the learning of reward associations through the modulation of the cortical and subcortical regions of the brain.In other words, it suggests that users become sensitive to a series of stimuli that combine with a rewarding feeling, which drives them to consume when they encounter them. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been used for a long time, mainly as mucolytic. It has also been used as a glutathione antioxidant precursor in the treatment of paracetamol overdose for more than 30 years. NAC has shown beneficial effects in animal models of cocaine addiction by reversing neuroplasticity and reducing the risk of restoring consumer behavior in rodents. Human studies show that NAC is potentially effective in preventing relapse in abstinent patients and ineffective in reducing current consumption. In this study the investigators will test a sample of newly detoxified (and therefore abstinent) patients who have taken a 3-4 week course of treatment, in order determine if NAC can be a useful medication candidate to avoid relapse in patients with cocaine dependence.
The goal of this study is to use [C-11]FLB 457 and amphetamine (oral, 0.5 mg/kg) to measure cortical dopamine transmission in cocaine dependent individuals and healthy controls
Crack addiction has become a severe public health problem in Brazil. Crack users present elevated prevalence rates of psychiatric comorbidities, sexual transmitted infections and unemployment with high probability of living or have lived in the streets, history of incarceration and engagement in illegal activities. For the last 20 years a treatment called Contingency Management (CM) have achieved the best results regarding reduction of substance use, promotion of abstinence, treatment attendance and retention in treatment. The first CM study conducted in Brazil advocates for the efficacy of CM on all of these outcomes, suggesting that CM can be effective in a Brazilian population of crack users.