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This study evaluates the use of a social-network approach to encourage African-American men who have sex with men (AAMSM) to adopt pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV infection. Thirty-six networks of AAMSM will be recruited in Milwaukee, WI, and Cleveland, OH. Half of these networks will have their leaders trained to endorse PrEP to their social network members, and the other half will be given brief HIV prevention counseling.
Among nearly 1 million HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), as many as 40% of those living in resource limited settings have not achieved virologic suppression. Kenya, a UNAIDS fast-track and PEPFAR priority country, has an estimated 98,000 children aged 0-14 years living with HIV. Virologic suppression is achieved by only 65% of Kenyan children on ART translating to only 38% of the final UNAIDS 90-90-90 goal for population-level viral suppression. Feasible, scalable and cost-effective approaches to maximizing durability of first-line ART and ensuring viral load (VL) suppression in HIV-infected children are urgently needed. This pilot study will evaluate two critical components related to viral suppression in children via: 1) Point-of-care (POC) VL testing (Aim 1) and 2) targeted DRM testing (Aim 2) among children on first-line ART at three facilities within a PEPFAR-funded HIV care and treatment program in Kenya. The hypotheses are: 1) viral suppression rates will be higher among children with access to POC VL testing and time to suppression shorter compared to children with standard VL testing and 2) DRM testing will shorten time to viral suppression and that the investigators will observe high levels of 1st line antiretroviral DRMs among children on ART without viral suppression. This proposal directly addresses the urgent need to find interventions to maximize viral suppression among children on ART and achieve the UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals.
The investigators propose to examine the prospective influence of substance use patterns on HIV/tuberculosis adherence, pharmacokinetics and disease progression while developing novel methods for early detection and correction of these mechanisms of treatment failure in Irkutsk. At the University of Virginia, the investigators have considerable research experience with vulnerable HIV populations and have adapted mobile phone methods for data collection of adherence, substance use, and study retention. The investigators have also begun development of colorimetric methods for pharmacokinetic monitoring that utilizes urine which may be suitable as a non-invasive sample for the unique environmental factors affecting HIV patients in Irkutsk, namely geographic remoteness and concurrent substance use
The purpose of this pharmacokinetic (PK) study is to evaluate if a double dose (3 mg) of levonorgestrel (LNG) emergency contraception (EC) overcomes known drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with efavirenz (EFV)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) or rifampicin (RIF)-containing tuberculosis (TB) therapy. The safety of double-dose (3.0 mg) LNG EC versus standard-dose (1.5 mg) will also be compared.
This is an open-label, single-sequence, two-way drug interaction study to investigate the PK, safety and tolerability of GSK3640254 and DTG when administered alone or in combination in healthy subjects. Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection frequently involves combination therapy. Data from this study will contribute to dosing recommendations when GSK3640254 and DTG are given in combination. The study will consist of a Screening period and 3 sequential treatment periods. Subjects will be administered DTG 50 milligrams (mg) once daily (QD) in Period 1 followed by GSK3640254 200 mg QD in Period 2. There will be a washout period of 4 days between Periods 1 and 2. In Period 3, subjects will be co-administered DTG 50 mg QD and GSK3640254 200 mg QD. The total duration of the study will be approximately 55 days, including Screening.
The purpose of this study is to collect quantitative data related to developing and testing a couple-based intervention (CBI) for HIV-positive women's medication adherence in the region of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. The CBI, called START (Supporting Treatment for Anti-Retroviral Therapy) Together, will be a manualized intervention focused on women's ART adherence and enhancing the couple's communication and problem-solving behavior. The preliminary efficacy of the CBI on HIV-positive women's ART adherence, men's HIV testing, and HIV-positive men's linkage to care will be compared to a control condition of referrals to usual HIV care.
Increased health education has the potential to facilitate better use of health care services and to promote early treatment, thus it can strengthen the health care system, and ultimately reduce morbidity and mortality. In this study, we will develop and test the effect of digital health messages related to HIV, Tuberculosis (TB) and Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis (TSCT) (the intervention diseases) in Migoli and Izazi (the intervention villages), in Iringa, Tanzania (TZ). The intervention is planned as follows: A digital platform, providing the intervention villages with digital health messages related to the above-mentioned diseases, will be implemented in TZ in 2019. The platform will be accessible free of charge, through own devices and tablets based in the local Wi-Fi spots in the villages. In the first part of this project, the doctoral research fellow will participate in developing the digital health messages, together with experts from the medical and teaching environments in Tanzania, Norway, Germany and USA. The second part of the PhD-project consists of a cluster non-randomised controlled trial and semi-structured interviews in Tanzania. The digital health messages will be physically shown to the participants in the intervention group. The study is planned to investigate the knowledge related to the intervention diseases, before the intervention, immediately after exposure to the intervention, and at follow-up points throughout one year, after the intervention has been implemented. Semi-structured interviews with clients (users of the intervention) from each of the intervention villages are included, to explore the perception and reception of the intervention. The baseline study and the immediate after survey will take place in Tanzania in Q1 2019, while the other follow-up studies and interviews (3, 6 and 12 months after baseline) will be undertaken throughout one year.
In this study the investigators will adapt and strengthen, test effectiveness, and explore implementation of conditional lottery incentive linkage strategies to engage men in HIV care and ART in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
The mLab App combines HIV prevention information with push notifications/reminders to complete HIV testing and an automated image processing feature to provide real-time feedback on home-based HIV test results. Theoretically-guided by the Health Information Technology Usability Evaluation Model (Health-ITUEM), the proposed project will refine and test a next-generation diagnostic intervention delivered on a mobile platform to improve HIV testing and linkage-to-care outcomes among youth living with and at-risk for HIV. Given the pervasiveness, low cost, and convenience of mobile technology, the investigators hope that the App can help achieve the goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy in the US by increasing the number of persons living with HIV who know their serostatus, decreasing HIV-related disparities, and ultimately reducing the risk of HIV transmission and acquisition.
Efavirenz (EFV)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains the preferred regimen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children aged 3 years or older on rifampin-containing antituberculosis (anti-TB) therapy. This is because drug interactions between first-line anti-TB therapy with protease inhibitors (PIs) are more severe to adjust for, and interactions with integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are not well studied in that age group. Although, current weight-based EFV dosing recommendation is not optimal in some children, pharmacokinetic-treatment response (PK-PD) data to guide optimal dosing of EFV during concurrent rifampin-containing therapy in children is very limited. The study team propose that EFV concentrations outside the optimal therapeutic range in children will be associated with virologic failure due to lack of efficacy because of low concentrations or increased central nervous system (CNS) toxicities from high concentrations leading to poor medication adherence. The study will determine virological suppression rates in HIV-infected children with and without TB coinfection treated with standard efavirenz-based therapy and examine the factors contributing to poor virologic response.