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Client-Centered Representative Payee is a structural intervention that provides financial management support to PLWHA by modifying the implementation of a long-standing policy within the Social Security Administration, in which an organization is authorized to serve as the client's payee. The central hypothesis of this study is that by helping clients to pay rent and other bills on time, housing stability will improve and financial stress will decrease. By reducing the cognitive burden of living with chronic financial stress and frequent threats of housing loss, clients can devote more time and attention to medical appointments and medication adherence. It is further hypothesized that these changes will improve clients' self-efficacy for health behaviors, retention in care, medication adherence, and viral loads. These hypotheses will be tested via the following specific aims: (1) Conduct a randomized controlled trial (n=320) to test the effect of Client-Centered Rep Payee on ART adherence and viral load among PLWHA who are economically disadvantaged and unstably housed. Clinical adherence will be compared through behavioral and biological measures including prescription refill data, self-reported appointment adherence, and viral load for patients receiving the intervention versus those receiving standard of care. (2) Test underlying mechanisms associated with Client-Centered Rep Payee that contribute to changes in medication adherence and viral suppression rates. This will be accomplished via use of quantitative (mediation analysis) and qualitative (semi-structured interview) methods to test hypothesized mediators of medication adherence and viral suppression including financial and housing instability, financial stress, self-efficacy for health behaviors, and retention in care. (3) Assess the cost and cost-effectiveness of the Client-Centered Rep Payee model. An economic analysis will be conducted to model the impact of the intervention as compared with standard of care on quality adjusted life years as well as new infections averted. This approach is innovative because it offers a structural intervention to improve adherence by addressing the effects of economic insecurity, requires low financial investment, and can be layered with existing clinical services. Further, it is highly scalable as it builds on a current policy in practice within the Social Security system.
The purpose of this early Phase 2 comparison trial is to evaluate the impact of community health worker (CHW) home visitors on pregnant women and their children in a rural setting in the rural Eastern Cape of South Africa. The intervention provided by the CHWs targets underweight children, mothers living with HIV (MLH), mothers using alcohol, and depressed mothers with the goal of supporting pregnant women to improve birth outcomes, decrease the number of children born with a low birthweight, and develop child caretaking skills over time. UCLA has identified and matched four areas surrounding primary health care clinics: two intervention areas in which this CHW program has been running for one year, and two control areas without the program. Mothers in the research area are followed for one year after giving birth.
Dolutegravir (DTG) is recommended for both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced, HIV infected adults and paediatric subjects aged 12 years and older and weighing at least 40 kg. One case of suspected DTG hypersensitivity (HSR) reaction from among over 1500 subjects exposed to the drug at the time of submission in 4Q2012, has been identified; this subject experienced a diffuse maculopapular rash with fever and elevated liver enzymes. Isolated rash was uncommon in the DTG programme with less than 1% of clinical trial subjects experiencing treatment related rash. The pharmacovigilance strategy for DTG and DTG-containing products is to implement a post-marketing risk management program to further quantify the risk of HSR and compare it to that of other integrase inhibitors, and to possibly determine associated risk factors. In addition, the post-authorization safety study will monitor and compare hepatotoxicity and severe skin rash following initiation of DTG or other integrase inhibitor (raltegravir (RAL) or elvitegravir (EGV) based antiretroviral regimens (ARV). Further to be able to distinguish the above symptoms and reactions caused by DTG or the other integrase inhibitor regimen from that of abacavir (ABC), known to cause hypersensitivity reaction, the integrase inhibitor groups will be compared in combinations with and without ABC. This five year-long safety study will be conducted through collaboration with EuroSIDA, a well established prospective observational cohort study of more than 18,200 subjects followed in 107 hospitals in 31 European countries, plus Israel and Argentina. This is a five year-long non-interventional prospective cohort study nested within the EuroSIDA study. The study population will include HIV positive subjects over the age of 16 years from EuroSIDA clinical sites, who are new users of DTG or other integrase inhibitors with and without ABC. Following initiation of DTG with ABC based antiretroviral regimen or DTG without ABC or regimens containing other integrase inhibitors (RAL, EGV) with or without ABC or any other DTG based ARV regimen as monotherapy or two-drug regimens, the study will aim to a) Monitor and compare hypersensitivity reaction, b) Monitor and compare hepatotoxicity, and c) Monitor and compare severe skin rash among all subjects discontinuing DTG or other integrase inhibitor regimens for any reason.
DTG 50 milligram (mg) tablet was approved for marketing in Russian Federation; however, DTG is not currently available for subjects at Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Centers as it is not available for order and supply via Federal program. This study is an open-label study which will include subjects, who complete taking DTG in studies ING112276, ING113086, ING114915, ING111762, and those subjects who end participation in study 200304 in which they received either DTG or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV). DTG will be supplied at a dose of 50 mg once daily to eligible subjects until the subject stops taking DTG or transitions to commercial supply of DTG when available at AIDS Centers via the Federal program. The objective of this study is to bridge the gap between the closure of ING112276, ING113086, ING114915, ING111762 or end of subject's participation in 200304 and the actual availability of commercial DTG at AIDS Centers via Federal program for human immunodeficiency (HIV)-1-infected adult subjects in Russian Federation. The study will also investigate long-term safety of DTG for subjects continuing DTG in Russian Federation.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a public health problem with enormous personal, and social losses. According to the National Mexican HIV/AIDS survey, more than 235,000 new cases of HIV infection were reported in Mexico between 1983 and 2015. HIV infection is characterized by persistent immune activation and constant turnover of T cells. This leads to a precipitous fall in the number of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, as well as to an early immunosenescence phenomenon that conditions susceptibility to opportunistic infections and a profound decrease in circulating and mucosal T cells. In these patients, modulation of the immune response represents a promising mechanism to maintain immunological homeostasis and prevent the development of pathology. From this perspective, it is feasible that lesser immune activation - rather than accelerating the progression of infection - may be an important actor in controlling infection and delaying the progression from chronic infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) . The administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in a reduction in the mortality of these patients, although the occurrence of late morbidity due to both infection and treatment has increased. Unfortunately, even in cluntries with complete coverage for HIV-infection, a large group of patients do not start treatment until late stages, in which immunosenescence is profound and the possibilities of immunological recovery (increase in T cell counts CD4 +, normalization of the CD4 + / CD8 + index, decrease in susceptibility to opportunists, normalization in the cellular response to vaccines) are very low. In this context, finding new immuno-modulatory strategies that are both easily applicable and potentially improving survival and quality of life is crucial. The therapeutic use of neuroimmune regulators in HIV infection has been poorly explored. In brief, the nervous system has evolutionary mechanisms of reflex control of the inflammatory response, such as cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex (RCA). Cholinergic stimulation through the use of nicotinic agonists has shown promising effects in murine and cellular models of systemic inflammation. Since cholinergic agonists are rapidly degraded or cause side effects, we performed a pilot study using pyridostigmine (Mestinon®), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (ACh-E), in HIV-infected patients. We observed that administration of pyridostigmine decreases the activation and proliferation of HIV-infected T cells, reduces the production of interferon (IFN) -gamma and increases that of interleukin (IL) -10 (Valdés-Ferrer SI et al., AIDS Research And Human Retrovir 2009). In a second open-label pilot study in seven chronically infected patients with full virological suppression but without concomitant elevation of CD4+ T cell counts, we found that the addition of pyridostigmine to ART led to a sustained and significant increase in the number of CD4 + T cells (PRS record: NCT00518154; in preparation for publication). These results suggest that the addition of pyridostigmine to antiretroviral therapy may be beneficial in achieving and maintaining immunological homeostasis in patients with HIV. The present study will address the potential effectiveness of add-on pyridostigmine (90mg, once per day, per oris) on CD4+ T cell counts, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, as well as ex-vivo markers of T cell phenotype and activity. The study is designed as a 24-week crossover study where patients will start a 12-week of pyridostigmine or placebo, and then crossing-over for an aditional 12 weeks (placebo-to-pyridostigmine, and pyrodistigmine-to-placebo). Since pyridostigmine is a commonly used drug for both myasthenia gravis and as a preventive in biological warfare cases, if our hypotheses are correct, the results will be easily extended to clinical practice, as there is enough long-term evidence of utility and safety of the drug.
This Antiretroviral Therapy as Long Acting Suppression every 2 Months (ATLAS-2M) study is designed to demonstrate the non-inferior antiviral activity and safety of CAB LA + RPV LA administered every 8 weeks (Q8W) compared to CAB LA + RPV LA administered every 4 weeks (Q4W) over a 48-week treatment period in approximately 1020 adult HIV-1 infected subjects. Subjects will be divided in 2 groups; Group 1 will include subjects receiving current anti-retroviral (ART) standard of care (SOC) therapy whereas group 2 will include subjects currently receiving CAB LA + RPV LA Q4W in ATLAS study. Subjects in both groups will be randomized to receive CAB LA + RPV LA Q4W or Q8W. The study will be carried out in 3 phases including screening phase, maintenance phase and extension phase. Subjects choosing not to enter the Extension phase can complete their study participation at the Week 100 visit and enter into the 52-week Long-Term Follow-Up (LTFU) Phase as required.
This is a multicenter prospective cohort evaluation of the implementation of a cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening program at selected outpatient HIV clinics (OPCs) and network laboratories in Vietnam.
The trial is an open-label, multicenter, prospective, randomized trial in 2 parallel groups, evaluating at W48, the non-inferiority of antiretroviral treatment taken 4 consecutive days a week versus continuous therapy, in HIV infected patients with controlled viral load for at least 12 months and stable antiretroviral treatment since 4 months.
The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of Darunavir/ Cobicistat/ Emtricitabine/ Tenofovir Alafenamide (D/C/F/TAF) fixed-dose combination (FDC) in a Test and Treat model of care in newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected, treatment-naive participants as determined by the proportion of virologic responders defined as having (HIV)-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) lesser than 50 copies per milliliter (copies/mL) at Week 48.
A Phase 3, double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ABT-493/ABT-530 in non-cirrhotic chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT)1 to GT6-infected Asian participants with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection who are HCV treatment-naïve or treatment-experienced with interferon (IFN) (alpha, beta or pegylated interferon [pegIFN]) with or without ribavirin (RBV) OR sofosbuvir with RBV with or without IFN.