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This study is designed to evaluate safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of a single 1200-mg dose of raltegravir (MK-0518, ISENTRESS®) in healthy Japanese male participants.
The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and effectiveness of DTG use in HIV positive pregnant women. This is a 3-year multi-site prospective observational study. Approximately, 250 HIV positive pregnant women from potential European AIDS Treatment Network (NEAT ID) sites across Europe will be enrolled. The enrollment period will be over 2 years with a follow-up period of 1 year for outcomes. The data collected will be that obtained during routine standard of care assessments; and the subjects will not undergo any interventional study procedures.
The aim of the study is to establish if human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected adult participants with current virologic suppression on a ≥3-drug tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) based regimen (TBR) remain suppressed upon switching to a two-drug regimen of dolutegravir (DTG) 50 milligram (mg) + lamivudine (3TC) 300 mg. This study will also provide important information regarding the safety and participant satisfaction with this two-drug regimen. The primary objective of this trial is to demonstrate the non-inferior antiviral activity of switching to DTG + 3TC once daily compared to continuation of TBR over 48 weeks in HIV-1 infected, ART-experienced, virologically suppressed participants. This study also will characterize the long-term antiviral activity, tolerability and safety of DTG + 3TC through Week 100. This will be a 100-week, Phase III, randomized, open-label, active-controlled, multicenter, parallel-group study. The study will include a screening phase (up to 28 days), a randomized early switch phase (Day 1 up to Week 52), a randomized late switch phase (Week 52 up to Week 100), and a continuation phase (post Week 100). Approximately 750 HIV-1 infected adults on stable TBR will be randomized 1:1 to switch to DTG + 3TC once daily for up to 100 weeks, or to continue their TBR for 52 weeks, at which time and if HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) <50 copies per milliliter (c/mL) at Week 48, these participants will switch to DTG + 3TC up to Week 100.
HIV persists despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) and is associated with chronic inflammation. This inflammation is thought to prevent an effective immune response against the virus and is mediated at least in part by gut epithelial permeability and microbial translocation. HIV accumulates preferentially within Th17 cells with time on ART; these memory CD4+ T cells are highly susceptible to HIV infection and are concentrated within the gut. Vitamin D promotes gut epithelial integrity in animal models and exerts anti-inflammatory effects on the human immune system including down-modulation of Th17 cell frequency. This study will evaluate whether high dose vitamin D is able to reduce immune activation and Th17 cell frequency, to improve gut barrier integrity and the gut microbiome and reduce HIV persistence in participants on long-term suppressive ART.
The pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an important component in the overall strategy for prevention of HIV infection. Cabotegravir (CAB) is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor currently in development for treatment and prevention of HIV infection. CAB possesses attributes that allow formulation and delivery as a LA parenteral product. CAB is being developed as both oral and long acting (LA) injectable formulations. This study is designed to evaluate the PK, safety, tolerability, and acceptability of CAB LA in adult HIV uninfected Chinese male subjects at low risk for HIV acquisition. Eligible subjects will receive oral CAB during oral phase of the study followed by CAB LA intramuscular (IM) injection during injection phase of the study. Approximately 60 subjects will be screened, of which, approximately 48 subjects will enter the oral phase and 40 subjects will enter the injection phase of the study. The maximum study duration will be approximately 89 weeks including oral phase, injection phase and follow-up phase.
This study will evaluate the effects of tamoxifen exposure in combination with vorinostat on viral reactivation among HIV-1 infected post-menopausal women with virologic suppression on antiretroviral therapy (ART), when compared to vorinostat alone.
Dolutegravir (DTG) is recommended for both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced, HIV infected adults and paediatric subjects aged 12 years and older and weighing at least 40 kg. One case of suspected DTG hypersensitivity (HSR) reaction from among over 1500 subjects exposed to the drug at the time of submission in 4Q2012, has been identified; this subject experienced a diffuse maculopapular rash with fever and elevated liver enzymes. Isolated rash was uncommon in the DTG programme with less than 1% of clinical trial subjects experiencing treatment related rash. The pharmacovigilance strategy for DTG and DTG-containing products is to implement a post-marketing risk management program to further quantify the risk of HSR and compare it to that of other integrase inhibitors, and to possibly determine associated risk factors. In addition, the post-authorization safety study will monitor and compare hepatotoxicity and severe skin rash following initiation of DTG or other integrase inhibitor (raltegravir (RAL) or elvitegravir (EGV) based antiretroviral regimens (ARV). Further to be able to distinguish the above symptoms and reactions caused by DTG or the other integrase inhibitor regimen from that of abacavir (ABC), known to cause hypersensitivity reaction, the integrase inhibitor groups will be compared in combinations with and without ABC. This five year-long safety study will be conducted through collaboration with EuroSIDA, a well established prospective observational cohort study of more than 18,200 subjects followed in 107 hospitals in 31 European countries, plus Israel and Argentina. This is a five year-long non-interventional prospective cohort study nested within the EuroSIDA study. The study population will include HIV positive subjects over the age of 16 years from EuroSIDA clinical sites, who are new users of DTG or other integrase inhibitors with and without ABC. Following initiation of DTG with ABC based antiretroviral regimen or DTG without ABC or regimens containing other integrase inhibitors (RAL, EGV) with or without ABC or any other DTG based ARV regimen as monotherapy or two-drug regimens, the study will aim to a) Monitor and compare hypersensitivity reaction, b) Monitor and compare hepatotoxicity, and c) Monitor and compare severe skin rash among all subjects discontinuing DTG or other integrase inhibitor regimens for any reason.
DTG 50 milligram (mg) tablet was approved for marketing in Russian Federation; however, DTG is not currently available for subjects at Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Centers as it is not available for order and supply via Federal program. This study is an open-label study which will include subjects, who complete taking DTG in studies ING112276, ING113086, ING114915, ING111762, and those subjects who end participation in study 200304 in which they received either DTG or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV). DTG will be supplied at a dose of 50 mg once daily to eligible subjects until the subject stops taking DTG or transitions to commercial supply of DTG when available at AIDS Centers via the Federal program. The objective of this study is to bridge the gap between the closure of ING112276, ING113086, ING114915, ING111762 or end of subject's participation in 200304 and the actual availability of commercial DTG at AIDS Centers via Federal program for human immunodeficiency (HIV)-1-infected adult subjects in Russian Federation. The study will also investigate long-term safety of DTG for subjects continuing DTG in Russian Federation.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a public health problem with enormous personal, and social losses. According to the National Mexican HIV/AIDS survey, more than 235,000 new cases of HIV infection were reported in Mexico between 1983 and 2015. HIV infection is characterized by persistent immune activation and constant turnover of T cells. This leads to a precipitous fall in the number of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, as well as to an early immunosenescence phenomenon that conditions susceptibility to opportunistic infections and a profound decrease in circulating and mucosal T cells. In these patients, modulation of the immune response represents a promising mechanism to maintain immunological homeostasis and prevent the development of pathology. From this perspective, it is feasible that lesser immune activation - rather than accelerating the progression of infection - may be an important actor in controlling infection and delaying the progression from chronic infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) . The administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in a reduction in the mortality of these patients, although the occurrence of late morbidity due to both infection and treatment has increased. Unfortunately, even in cluntries with complete coverage for HIV-infection, a large group of patients do not start treatment until late stages, in which immunosenescence is profound and the possibilities of immunological recovery (increase in T cell counts CD4 +, normalization of the CD4 + / CD8 + index, decrease in susceptibility to opportunists, normalization in the cellular response to vaccines) are very low. In this context, finding new immuno-modulatory strategies that are both easily applicable and potentially improving survival and quality of life is crucial. The therapeutic use of neuroimmune regulators in HIV infection has been poorly explored. In brief, the nervous system has evolutionary mechanisms of reflex control of the inflammatory response, such as cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex (RCA). Cholinergic stimulation through the use of nicotinic agonists has shown promising effects in murine and cellular models of systemic inflammation. Since cholinergic agonists are rapidly degraded or cause side effects, we performed a pilot study using pyridostigmine (Mestinon®), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (ACh-E), in HIV-infected patients. We observed that administration of pyridostigmine decreases the activation and proliferation of HIV-infected T cells, reduces the production of interferon (IFN) -gamma and increases that of interleukin (IL) -10 (Valdés-Ferrer SI et al., AIDS Research And Human Retrovir 2009). In a second open-label pilot study in seven chronically infected patients with full virological suppression but without concomitant elevation of CD4+ T cell counts, we found that the addition of pyridostigmine to ART led to a sustained and significant increase in the number of CD4 + T cells (PRS record: NCT00518154; in preparation for publication). These results suggest that the addition of pyridostigmine to antiretroviral therapy may be beneficial in achieving and maintaining immunological homeostasis in patients with HIV. The present study will address the potential effectiveness of add-on pyridostigmine (90mg, once per day, per oris) on CD4+ T cell counts, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, as well as ex-vivo markers of T cell phenotype and activity. The study is designed as a 24-week crossover study where patients will start a 12-week of pyridostigmine or placebo, and then crossing-over for an aditional 12 weeks (placebo-to-pyridostigmine, and pyrodistigmine-to-placebo). Since pyridostigmine is a commonly used drug for both myasthenia gravis and as a preventive in biological warfare cases, if our hypotheses are correct, the results will be easily extended to clinical practice, as there is enough long-term evidence of utility and safety of the drug.
This Antiretroviral Therapy as Long Acting Suppression every 2 Months (ATLAS-2M) study is designed to demonstrate the non-inferior antiviral activity and safety of CAB LA + RPV LA administered every 8 weeks (Q8W) compared to CAB LA + RPV LA administered every 4 weeks (Q4W) over a 48-week treatment period in approximately 1020 adult HIV-1 infected subjects. Subjects will be divided in 2 groups; Group 1 will include subjects receiving current anti-retroviral (ART) standard of care (SOC) therapy whereas group 2 will include subjects currently receiving CAB LA + RPV LA Q4W in ATLAS study. Subjects in both groups will be randomized to receive CAB LA + RPV LA Q4W or Q8W. The study will be carried out in 3 phases including screening phase, maintenance phase and extension phase. Subjects choosing not to enter the Extension phase can complete their study participation at the Week 100 visit and enter into the 52-week Long-Term Follow-Up (LTFU) Phase as required.