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Antiretroviral therapy (ART) dramatically reduces Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) replication leading to restoration of immune function and a near normal life expectancy, but treatment is lifelong and there is no cure. The major barrier to a cure is the persistence of long lived cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4+) T-cells that contain a "silenced" form of HIV, called HIV latency. The purpose of this research is to investigate whether it may be possible to reduce the amount of dormant HIV infection in immune cells, by "turning on" or activating the virus and hence force it out of the latently infected memory T cells. This leads to production of HIV by the cell, which will either die or will be recognized and eliminated by the immune system. As very few T cells are latently infected with HIV, the death of these cells is not expected to affect the function of the immune system and further infection of new cells is expected to be prevented by ART.
The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and bioactivity of an herbal supplement called "kansui," which contains several active ingredients such as ingenols that may have a role in helping clear HIV from the body. Kansui has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries to treat various ailments such as for eliminating excess fluid in the abdomen or lungs, loosening phlegm from the chest, and relieving constipation. Based on preliminary in vitro data from our group, kansui extract powder is a potent activator of HIV transpcription in latently infected Jurkat cells. The investigators' hypothesis is that kansui extract powder prepared as tea will be safe and well-tolerated, elicit an in vivo immunologic response, and at the doses administered, increase HIV transcription in latently-infected cells among HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy.
This clinical trial studies gene-modified, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-protected stem cell transplant in treating patients with HIV-associated lymphoma. Stem cells, or cells which help form blood, are collected from the patient and stored. They are treated in the laboratory to help protect the immune system from HIV. Chemotherapy is given before transplant to kill lymphoma cells and to make room for new stem cells to grow. Patients then receive the stem cells that were collected from them before chemotherapy and have been genetically modified to replace the stem cells killed by the chemotherapy.
HCV antiviral therapy has evolved rapidly in recent years and access to these medications has improved. While SVR is associated with improved liver outcomes, the rate of liver fibrosis regression with SVR is variable and predictors of regression are not well established. In addition, achieving SVR in patients with cirrhosis does not necessarily prevent decompensation or eliminate the risk of HCC. A better understanding of the role insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism have on these outcomes in HCV patients who achieve SVR are needed. Identifying and targeting potentially modifiable risk factors such as IR may be of significant importance in preventing progression of and promoting regression of liver fibrosis, reducing mortality and improving outcomes for HCV-HIV co-infected and HCV-mono-infected patients. This proposed pilot study will be the first to evaluate the role of Metformin on liver fibrosis in HCV-HIV co-infected and HCV mono-infected patients with IR receiving DAA HCV treatment. If Metformin is effective in reducing liver fibrosis in this patient population, this will represent a well-tolerated, easy to administer, inexpensive therapy that will protect against negative HCV outcomes. This study will also be an opportunity to evaluate the impact of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia have on viral clearance HCV-infected patients treated with interferon-free regimens. In addition, the study will further explore the relationship between HCV, insulin resistance and AFP levels.
Research Topic: Over 110,000 HIV Ugandan children are at risk for neurocognitive disorders due to the progressive encephalopathy of CNS HIV infection. Even if clinically stable, these children can have motor, attention, memory, visual-spatial processing, and other executive function impairment. One-hundred and fifty school-age children with HIV in Kayunga District, Uganda, will serve as our participants. Fifty of these children will be randomly selected to receive 24 training sessions of a computerized cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CCRT) program called Captain's Log, marketed mostly for American children with attention or learning problems. A locked version of Captain's Log which does not direct the child's training in a progressive manner will be administered to a second "active control" group; while a third group will be a passive control group not receiving any computer training intervention. Study Aim 1: To compare the neuropsychological benefit of 24 training sessions of Captain's Log CCRT to the active and passive control groups over a 8-week period, and at 3-month follow-up. Study Aim 2: To compare the psychiatric benefit of 24 training sessions of Captain's Log CCRT to the active and passive control groups over an 8-week period, and at 3-month follow-up. Study Aim 3: To evaluate how HIV subtype, ART treatment status, and the corresponding clinical stability of the child modifies CCRT neuropsychological performance gains and psychiatric symptom reduction. Outcome Assessments: The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd ed. (KABC-2), Tests of Variables of Attention (TOVA) visual and auditory tests, CogState computerized neuropsychological screening test, Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2), and Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) will be administered before and after the 8-week training period and at 3-month follow-up. We have previously used all these assessments with Ugandan children with HIV to effectively evaluate neuropsychological and psychiatric problems. Captain's Log has an internal evaluator feature which will help us monitor the specific training tasks to which the children best respond. Based on our prior research with Kayunga children with HIV, we anticipate that about 40% of our sample will be on ART at study enrollment, and about 20% will be Subtype D while 60% will be subtype A. We also observed that children with HIV Subtype A are at greater risk for neurocognitive deficits. Analyses: We will compare neuropsychological and psychiatric gains over the 8-week training period and at 3-mo follow-up for our three study groups, anticipating that they will be significantly greater for the CCRT intervention children (Study Aims 1 & 2). These neuropsychological gains will be associated with improved school performance over the long-term. Intervention children on ART will have greater gains than those not on ART, and HIV subtype D children will have lower viral loads and higher lymphocyte activation levels, resulting in greater gains from CCRT (Study Aim 3). Conclusion: CCRT will prove effective and sustainable in potentiating the neurocognitive benefit of ART in HIV children. It will prove viable for assessing and treating children in resource-poor settings.
The purpose of this study is to show that the administration of 400/mg/m2/day of didanosine(ddI) during the meal is bioequivalent to the administration of 240/mg/m2/day of didanosine during fasting, in HIV infected children treated by a ARV combination including ddI
This project wills to determine the incidence of osteoporosis in our population of HIV-infected patients and to assess the efficacy and security of ibandronate, whose efficacy in post-menopausal women has already been proved.
The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of continuing or discontinuing 3TC treatment in the presence of HIV virus with 3TC resistance for persons who are on a regimen including least three other anti-HIV drugs. The overall aim is to determine whether continuing 3TC is of benefit in HIV-positive persons who have already shown resistance to this drug.
The purpose of this study is to look at the effectiveness of giving a new anti-HIV drug (AG1549) plus Viracept (nelfinavir) plus Combivir (a tablet containing zidovudine plus lamivudine) to HIV-infected patients who are not taking anti-HIV drugs.
The purpose of this study is to see if two different doses of AG1549 plus other anti-HIV drugs are safe and effective in HIV-infected patients who are not taking anti-HIV drugs.