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This mixed methods study will utilize a randomized step-wedge design to assess the impact of point-of-care (POC) versus conventional early infant diagnosis (EID) on key outcomes including timely return of results to caregivers and time to initiation on treatment for HIV-infected infants. Data will be collected through longitudinal clinical follow-up and medical chart extraction of routine records and lab forms. Feasibility and acceptability data will be collected through interviews with mothers/caregivers of HIV-exposed infants, and community focus groups.
This study evaluates the use of a social-network approach to encourage African-American men who have sex with men (AAMSM) to adopt pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV infection. Thirty-six networks of AAMSM will be recruited in Milwaukee, WI, and Cleveland, OH. Half of these networks will have their leaders trained to endorse PrEP to their social network members, and the other half will be given brief HIV prevention counseling.
The goal of this study is to test a multi-faceted Tailored Motivational Interviewing Implementation intervention (TMI), based on the Dynamic Adaptation Process (DAP) to scale up an Evidence-based Practice (EBP) in multidisciplinary adolescent HIV care settings while balancing flexibility and fidelity. A mixed-methods design will be used, in which the dominant method is quantitative (a dynamic wait-listed design; DWLD) to determine the impact of TMI on the integration of MI with fidelity in 11 adolescent HIV clinics with an average of 15 providers and 100 patients each.
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a serious disease with no cure. Some people with HIV have depression and other mood problems. They can have problems with thinking and memory. Researchers think 2 chemicals in the brain may cause those problems. The chemicals are serotonin and dopamine. The researchers want to take images to learn more about those chemicals in HIV patients. Objective: To learn how HIV affects serotonin and dopamine in the brain. Eligibility: Adults ages 18-66 with HIV who have been on antiretroviral treatment for at least 1 year Healthy adults ages 18-66 All participants must be already enrolled in protocol 13-N-0149. Design: - Participants will be screened with a urine drug test. The results could be shared with insurance companies. - Participants who could be pregnant will have a pregnancy test. - Participants may have a physical exam and blood tests. - Participants will have 1 or 2 positron emission tomography (PET) scans. A needle will guide a thin plastic tube (catheter) into an arm vein. A radioactive drug will be injected into the plastic tube. This is a tracer that helps researchers understand the PET images. - Participants who have the dopamine scan will have to fast for 4-6 hours before the scan. They will take a pill to help direct the tracer to the brain one hour before the scan. - Each scan will last about 1.5 hours. - Participants will be asked to drink a lot of fluids and empty their bladder frequently for the rest of the day after each scan.
The purpose of this study is to follow a cohort of HIV-infected adults who have alcohol and/or drug use to: 1) test the associations between alcohol (and illicit drugs and polypharmacy (multiple prescribed medications)) and falls (fractures secondarily), and whether frailty mediates these associations; and 2) test the associations between alcohol (and illicit drugs and polypharmacy) and utilization (emergency department use and hospitalization for falls and fractures), and whether frailty mediates them. To achieve the stated aims the investigators will expand (to 400) and continue to follow an existing prospective cohort (The Boston ARCH Cohort) of adults with HIV infection and a high prevalence of exposure to alcohol, other drugs, and polypharmacy. The Boston ARCH Cohort is a longitudinal cohort (1-3.5 years of follow-up) of 250 HIV-infected men and women with current substance dependence or ever injection drug use that have a spectrum of alcohol use.
This study evaluates the impact of Zimbabwe's program for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) on vertical transmission of HIV infection and HIV-free survival among infants exposed to HIV. The study will test the hypothesis that the accelerated PMTCT program in Zimbabwe will result in fewer new HIV infections in infants and will increase infant survival.
This research study proposes to embed HIV testing outreach workers from a young adult focused medical and HIV treatment program into an alternative sentencing program to deliver a new service delivery model (Link2CARE) that integrates evidence-based protocols for justice-involved young adults to: a) promote HIV and STI testing, and HIV and SU risk screening, b) provide onsite intervention, and c) cross-system linkage to HIV, STI, and SU care. Phase 1 has already been completed. In phase 1, the intervention components were adapted for use among justice involved young adults and the resulting protocols were piloted with justice involved young adults, finalizing the resulting 4-session Link2CARE intervention. In phase 2, we will test Link2CARE among N=450 justice-involved young adults enrolled at the alternative sentencing program and conduct process evaluations with N=15 alternative sentencing program staff.
Among people with HIV, the severity of depressive symptoms has repeatedly been associated with the presence of self-reported cognitive difficulties, even in the absence of impairment on neuropsychological testing. There is uncertainty about the clinical importance of these self-reports, especially when neuropsychological testing is normal. However, there is growing evidence that these self-reports are clinically important. For example, among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), evidence suggests that functional impairments is mediated by self-reported cognitive dysfunction, rather than objective cognitive dysfunction. Treatment of depression with Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy (CBT) has been shown to improve depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder, but there are few studies of the impact of psychotherapy on self-reported cognition and cognitive performance. Good Days Ahead (GDA) is a computerized treatment program developed to address symptoms of depression and anxiety. It teaches the basic principles of computerized behavioral therapy (CBT) in nine therapy sessions, each typically taking 30 minutes to complete. GDA has been found to be as effective as face-to-face CBT in decreasing symptoms of depression and anxiety. The hypothesis is that people whose depressive symptoms are reduced following treatment with cCBT will also report fewer cognitive difficulties than before treatment. A second hypothesis is that changes in self-reported cognition will be concordant with changes in cognitive performance, such that people who make no improvement in self-report cognition will also show no improvement in cognitive performance and those who do improve on self-report will improve on cognitive performance.
This is a study of study of My HealtheVet (MHV) use by Veterans diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and VA providers/staff who care for them. The investigators hope to learn and understand how MHV can improve the self-management of chronic conditions like HIV. First, the investigators will review Veteran medical records to look at the relationship between use of MHV and whether it has a positive or negative impact on the Veteran's management of HIV. Next, the investigators will interview participants to find out how MHV for self-management is used by Veterans and to find out why Veterans and providers choose to use (or not use) specific MHV tools. Lastly, the investigators will use the information found from the first two steps and create an intervention that will encourage non-MHV users to use the MHV tools that can help achieve health-related goals. Once the intervention has been developed,Veterans and providers will participate in a "cognitive walkthrough" to help the researchers test the intervention to see if it is usable, possible, and acceptable.
People living with HIV infection (PLH) are clustered in friendship groups with other HIV+ persons, and an intervention delivered to all members of PLH social networks allows HIV+ people who are friends in day-to-day life to provide one another with support for entering, remaining, and adhering to HIV medical care. Moreover, an intervention delivered to groups attended by HIV+ persons who are friends increases HIV medical care engagement and decreases problem drinking more than individual counseling, probably because the network intervention harnessed mutual peer social support among friends who share the same HIV status, face similar coping issues, and interact together in day-to-day life. The planned research will be conducted in two phases in St. Petersburg, Russia.