View clinical trials related to Insulin Sensitivity/Resistance.Filter by:
Endoscopic bariatric and metabolic therapies (EBMT) are a non-invasive, safe alternative treatment for patients with obesity. Current FDA- approved devices include intragastric balloons (IGB) and suturing devices for endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG). These gastric interventions work by interfering with how your stomach expands to accept and process a meal, which slows down how fast your stomach empties. ESG, the procedure we are doing in this study,involves endoscopic suturing to reduce the length and width of the stomach so that you feel full faster. Semaglutide is a popular medication for weight loss, and has shown significant weight loss with a good safety profile in clinical trials. In this study, we will compare ESG, Semaglutide only, and an ESG + Semaglutide combination, on weight loss for subjects undergoing the procedure with a history of obesity, liver fibrosis and NAFLD. To better understand how these impact obesity and liver fibrosis, we will track weight loss, laboratory values, liver stiffness, and your overall liver health. The suturing device used in the ESG procedure and the semaglutide are all approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for endoscopic procedures in the upper gastrointestinal tract and medication management of obesity. This is a study that will randomize patients to 1 of 3 different treatment options: ESG only, Semaglutide only or ESG + Semaglutide. We want to see if adding the weight loss medication to the ESG procedure will increase weight loss and how it will impact liver health.
The goal of this pilot open pre-post clinical trial is to test effects of a wholegrain product in patients with newly diagnosed gestational diabetes. The main question it aims to answer is: Does the wholegrain product improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Participants will consume product on two consecutive evenings shortly after the first OGTT and will then perform a second OGTT. Researchers will compare the results of the first and second OGTT to see if glucose tolerance improved after consumption of the test product.
General integrated goal of the coordinated project: To elucidate the role of succinate and other metabolites derived from the intestinal microbiota such as Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs), as energy sensing metabolites in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Specific objectives of Subproject 1 (SP1): 1a. - To investigate whether intermittent fasting (IF) is better than Continued Daily Caloric Restriction (DCR) in terms of metabolic improvement through the study of: 1) the dynamics of gastrointestinal hormones and energy sensing metabolites, 2) the intestinal microbiome, 3) variability on succinate and SCFAs, MCFAs and Biliary Acid after weight loss; Methodology: clinical study: randomized, cross-over design, study participants (n=15) will consume either lifestyle recommendations for a healthy Mediterranean diet under a continued caloric restriction diet (DCR) or will undertake an intermittent (IF) protocol. Clinical, anthropometrical and functional studies. Metabolomics for gut derived metabolites in plasma. Enteroendocrine gastrointestinal dynamics. Metagenomic analysis.
Epidemiological studies have revealed that 60-80% of women with breast cancer (BC) develop metabolic disorders that are similar to those observed in conditions like type 2 diabetes. These metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance, are associated with increased BC recurrence and mortality. Skeletal muscle is the major site of glucose uptake in humans. The aims of the present project are to 1) determine the involvement of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle in the metabolic disorders prevalent in BC survivors, 2) identify BC-and/or treatment-induced molecular changes in skeletal muscle from BC survivors .
In this project, investigators explored the role of the particles that carry "bad cholesterol" in the blood (termed LDL) that are known to promote heart disease, in the promotion of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. In specific, they investigated how these particles may induce the activation of an immune pathway in human fat tissue leading to multiple anomalies that favors T2D. They also explored whether omega-3 fatty acids, which are the type of fat found in fish oils can counterbalance the negative effects of LDL in fat tissue, thus providing a natural way to help reduce the risk for T2D in subjects with elevated blood LDL. To do so, 41 subjects who were free of disease or medication affecting metabolism were enrolled at the Montreal Clinical Research Institute between 2013 and 2019 and were placed on an intervention with omega-3 fatty acids supplementation for 12 weeks (2.7 g/day, Triple Strength Omega-3 from Webbers Naturals). Investigators examined the effects of LDL and omega-3 on risk factors for T2D before and after the intervention in the whole body and specifically in fat tissue biopsies taken from the hip region. Eighty percent of the subjects who were enrolled into the study completed the intervention.
Every 3 minutes a new case of diabetes is diagnosed in Canada, mostly type 2 diabetes (T2D) increasing the risk for heart disease. T2D and heart disease share many common risk factors such as aging, obesity and unhealthy lifestyle. Paradoxically however, while lowering blood LDL, commonly known as "bad cholesterol", is protective against heart disease, research over the past 10 years have shown that the lower is blood LDL, the higher is the chance of developing T2D. This phenomena is happening whether blood LDL is lowered by a common drug against heart disease called Statins, or by being born with certain variations in genes, some of which are very common (~80% of people have them). To date, it is unclear why lowering blood LDL is associated with higher risk for diabetes, and whether this can be treated naturally with certain nutrients. Investigators believe that lowering blood LDL by forcing LDL entry into the body tissue through their receptors promotes T2D. This is because investigators have shown that LDL entry into human fat tissue induces fat tissue dysfunction, which would promote T2D especially in subjects with excess weight. On the other hand, investigators have shown that omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) can directly treat the same defects induced by LDL entry into fat tissue. Omega-3 is a unique type of fat that is found mostly in fish oil. Thus the objectives of this clinical trial to be conducted in 48 subjects with normal blood LDL are to explore if: 1. Subjects with higher LDL receptors and LDL entry into fat tissue have higher risk factors for T2D compared to subjects with lower LDL receptors and LDL entry into fat tissue 2. 6-month supplementation of omega-3 from fish oil can treat subjects with higher LDL receptors and LDL entry into fat tissue reducing their risk for T2D. This study will thus explore and attempt to treat a new risk factor for T2D using an inexpensive and widely accessible nutraceutical, which would aid in preventing T2D in humans.
This observational study will evaluate the effect of puberty suppression on insulin sensitivity, metabolic rate and vascular health among transgender female youth at baseline and 6 months after initiation of a gondoatropin releasing hormone agonist compared to matched cisgender male controls.
This study will investigate how maternal emotional state following a controlled stress exposure in pregnancy influences blood glucose and insulin levels after eating a standardized meal, and whether the effects of emotional state on blood glucose and insulin is different after eating a healthy meal (low GI) compared to a less healthy meal (high GI).
Recently, it has been proposed that the consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners, including sucralose, it's not harmless and is related with metabolic effects. Some studies have reported that sucralose produces alterations in glucose homeostasis. In vitro studies indicate that sucralose is capable of interacting with sweet taste receptors (T1R2 and T1R3) in the intestine, thus increasing the expression of glucose transporters including the sodium-glucose cotransporter type 1 (SGLT1) and the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), increasing glucose absorption. This interaction with intestinal sweet taste receptors also generates an increase in the secretion of the incretins glucagon-like peptide type 1 (GLP-1) and the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), which might enhance the postprandial insulin release. However, these results are preliminary and it's desirable to confirm if sucralose consumption is associated with glucose metabolism modifications using an appropriate methodological design and with gold standard methods. The aim of this triple-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel, randomized clinical trial is to confirm the changes in insulin sensitivity associated with sucralose consumption in humans, to identify whether these changes are in the liver or skeletal muscle and to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms generating these changes. Specifically, we will investigate if sucralose generates a dysbiosis in the gut microbiota that could be related to insulin resistance by increasing concentrations of lipopolysaccharide, a toxin present in Gram-negative bacteria that triggers a low grade inflammation known as metabolic endotoxemia. In addition, the changes in postprandial concentrations of GLP-1, glucose, insulin and C-peptide due to the combination of sucralose with a mixed meal will be investigated. The results of this study will determine if sucralose consumption, frequently used as a non-nutritive sweetener, is associated to significant changes in glucose homeostasis in humans.
GLP-1 increases skeletal and cardiac microvascular perfusion and improves insulin's microvascular responses in human subjects with T1DM, leading to improved metabolic insulin responses, endothelial function, and increased muscle oxygenation