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The study is a crossover randomised controlled trial. Alcohol or cocaine dependent participants will be recruited from inpatient and outpatient psychiatric treatment centres, on the approval of their treating physician. A healthy control group will be recruited using online advertising. All participants will undergo each of three conditions in a randomised order; 1) 20 minutes of cycle ergometry at 50-60% of maximum heart rate; 2) 20 minutes of exercise at 70-80% of maximum heart rate; 3) 20 minutes of quiet reading. Immediately before and after each condition, participants will be asked to complete a computerised Stroop test, watch a film containing substance-related images, and self-report craving levels. During the Stroop test and film viewing, participants' neural activity will be measured via functional near-infrared spectroscopy
Women who take opioid substitution therapy have higher rates of unintended pregnancy, more pregnancies, and a higher risk of pregnancy complications than the general population. Current practice is to test for pregnancy only at patient request or if the clinician suspects pregnancy. This study will compare monthly pregnancy testing to current practice in a double blind randomized control trial. As many women of childbearing age as possible will be recruited from the Hamilton Clinic for Opioid Substitutional Therapy. Women assigned to the intervention will have monthly testing at the same time as their monthly urine drug testing at the clinic. The primary objective is to assess if there is a significant difference is early pregnancy detection and the secondary objectives are to assess differences in pregnancy disposition and gestational age at entry to prenatal or abortion care.
California counties are in the process of implementing a Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Medicaid 1115 Substance Use Disorder (SUD) demonstration. The demonstration requires that patients be assigned to addiction treatment settings and levels of care systematically, using comprehensive biopsychosocial assessments and guided by the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) patient placement criteria. RTI International, a nonprofit research institute, and University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Integrated Substance Abuse Programs have been awarded a contract from the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) to study the effects of the ASAM implementation in California. The California 1115 SUD demonstration provides a unique opportunity to learn about the benefits and challenges resulting from system-wide implementation of ASAM criteria. The study will involve surveying patients in counties that are using the ASAM criteria and in counties that have not yet adopted the ASAM criteria. Medicaid patients receiving addiction treatment will be offered the opportunity participate in the study and to be surveyed about their experiences in treatment. The study will also analyze data from the California Outcomes Management System (CalOMS) and conduct interviews with providers, patients, and policymakers in the state. The results of the study will help inform California's efforts to continually improve its addiction treatment systems to better meet the needs of it communities. This study will also produce important and useful information to patients seeking treatment for addiction, and their providers, SUD system administrators, and payers.
This randomized controlled study compares tapering of long-term opioid therapy in a population with chronic non-cancer pain with control group constituted of waiting list. Half of participants receives intervention at baseline and the other half are controls but receives intervention after 4 months.
Evidence suggests that repeated or chronic ketamine use, as compared to acute ketamine users, posed a higher clinical risk of developing psychotic disorders, potentially related to the underlying chronic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction, and a higher risk of suffering from schizophrenia particularly in those genetically susceptible, or genetically predisposed ketamine abusers. With ketamine infusion rises as a emerging hope as an acute treatment for depression and suicidality under the shadow of unknown longer term psychotomimetic effects peculiarly amongst repeated or chronic use, the current case-control study aims to investigate: a) if repeated or chronic ketamine use is associated with an increased risk of psychosis by comparing those ketamine abusers with and without psychosis, and to those non-ketamine-using drug abusers with psychosis; and b) if genetic predisposition from single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with risk of psychosis in ketamine abusers.
The primary aim of this project is to use a randomized single-blind sham-controlled study to investigate if high frequency repetitive transmagnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) can modulate cue-induced craving in adult methamphetamine (METH) users. The investigators hypothesize that HF-rTMS directed at left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) will result in a reduction in craving for METH compared to sham-controlled rTMS in adults with methamphetamine use disorder (MUD) as evidenced by validated measures of METH craving. Neurobiologically, the investigators anticipate rTMS mediated stimulation of the DLPFC could result in inhibition of cue-induced craving through potential disruption of involved circuitry. The current project proposes that participants who are recently abstinent from METH will be randomized into four experimental groups to provide two rTMS conditions (real versus sham) and two picture cues conditions (METH versus neutral). The experiment will have an induction phase where each subject will receive 10 daily treatments within 2 weeks. Just before each rTMS/sham session participants will be shown visual cues (METH or neutral). Participants will then undergo a maintenance phase for an additional month with assessments to evaluate craving and relapse. Urine samples for urine drug screening (UDS) will be collected at screening day and on days 1, 5 and 10. Just before each rTMS/sham session participants will be shown visual cues (METH and neutral). VAS craving scores will be assessed before and after picture presentation and after the rTMS/sham session. Before the first and 10th treatment session, participants were evaluated by the the Stimulant Craving Questionnaire (STCQ) and the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) questionnaires. Participants will then undergo a maintenance phase for an additional month. During the first week of maintenance, three rTMS/sham sessions will be administered. During each of the following 3 weeks, one rTMS/sham session will be given per week. As with the induction phase, urine samples will be collected for screening and STCQ and the SDS questionnaires will be completed at each maintenance session. To evaluate the long-term effects of the rTMS treatment, the investigators plan on contacting participants 6 months after treatment termination for all subjects who completed the 10 treatment sessions. During that phone conversation, craving and relapse will again be assessed.
In recent years adolescent substance abuse is a serious and growing problem. Substance use among adolescents means the use of alcohol, opiates, amphetamines, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, benzodiazepines, hallucinogens, and anabolic steroids. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime reports that approximately 5% of the world's population used an illicit drug in 2010 and it is estimated that heroin, cocaine and other drugs are responsible for 0.1 to 0.2 million deaths per year. There is a limited number of studies in the literature that investigate the relationship between substance use disorder and respiratory functions. In Taylor et al., study reported that the proportion of cannabis-dependent study members with an FEV1/FVC ratio of, 80% was 36% compared to 20% for non-smokers. Another research of Taylor et al., in longitudinal observations over 8 years in young adults (cannabis smoking on lung function in young adults between the ages of 18 and 26) revealed a dose-dependent relationship between cumulative cannabis consumption and decline in FEV1/VC. In a monograph, stated that follow-up studies of regular cannabis-only smokers also found impaired respiratory function and pathological changes in lung tissue like those preceding the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease . The core anatomically described as a box, with the abdominals at the front, spinal and gluteal muscles at the back, the diaphragm on the top, and the pelvic floor and hip muscles on the bottom. Correct breathing is vital to abdominal training because respiratory muscles are directly involved during common core stability exercises. Moreover, the diaphragm, a component of core stability, plays a role in respiration and trunk stability by controlling intra-abdominal pressure . Oh et al.reported that, 30-min, 3 days a week for 8 weeks lumbar stabilization exercise had a more positive effect on pulmonary function than general physical therapy on stroke patients. Our hypothesis was that core exercises may positive effect on respiratory functions and functional capacity of substance use disorder individuals. The aim of our study is to investigate the effects of core exercises on respiratory functions and functional capacity in adolescents with substance use disorder.
Multiple chronic conditions (MCC) are widely recognized as the U.S. public health challenge of the 21st century. These physical and behavioral health conditions take a large toll on those suffering from the diseases, including many who are publicly insured, as well as caregivers and society. While evidence-based integrated care models can improve outcomes for individuals with MCC, such models have not yet been widely implemented. Insurance providers/payers have innovative system features that can be used to deploy these models; however, the investigators do not yet know which of these features can best help to improve outcomes for individuals with MCC in general or high-need subgroups in particular. As a result, patients lack information to make important decisions about their health and health care, and system-level decision makers face ongoing challenges in effectively and efficiently supporting those with MCC. This real-world study will provide useful information about available options for supporting individuals with MCC. Building on existing integrated care efforts, the investigators will enroll 1,662 adults with MCC at risk for repeated hospitalizations and assess the impact of three payer-led options (High-Touch, High-Tech, Usual Care) on patient-centered outcomes, namely patient activation in health care, health status, and subsequent re-hospitalization. The investigators will also determine which option works best for whom under what circumstances by gathering information directly from individuals with MCC through self-report questionnaires, health care use data, and interviews.
The purpose of this research study is to: 1. assess how well individuals entering medication assisted treatment like the RETAIN e-health application as measured by their feedback on the intervention. 2. test the impact of RETAIN on knowledge about medication-assisted treatment(MAT). 3. assess treatment retention rates in patients completing the RETAIN intervention. 4. test the impact of RETAIN on knowledge about HCV/HIV 5. test the impact of RETAIN on interest in being tested for HCV/HIV
The purpose of this research study is to: 1. assess how participants like the AWAITS e-health application as measured by their feedback on the intervention 2. test the impact of AWAITS on knowledge about opioid overdose and risk-reduction strategies. 3. assess the proportion of participants who accept a list of local treatment providers 4. test the impact of AWAITS on interest in being tested for HCV/HIV.