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The purpose of this study is to try to understand and explain why HIV-infected and uninfected women who use cannabis (marijuana) currently, or have used cannabis in the past, have higher risk of having experienced a fall in our earlier analyses in WIHS. This study will compare what happens when women are given cannabis compared with placebo, on measures of mobility, including walking speed under walking conditions that vary in terms of difficulty; for example normal walking and walking while reciting alternate letters of the alphabet, as well as measures of balance and cognition (for example attention, memory).
There are 33.4 million individuals living with HIV/AIDS worldwide. Despite successful HIV prevention strategies such as condom use and reduction of sexual partners, HIV continues to spread at an alarming rate. In 2010, 2.6 millions of new infections were detected. In Sub-Saharan Africa, women represent the two-third of all new infections1. Despite the efforts of the scientific community, there is still no commercial vaccine or microbicide available. To explain this natural protection against HIV, different mechanisms have been identified. These women have a unique immune phenotype that we called Immune Quiescence. This phenotype is characterized by lower expression of genes involved in cellular activation, lower resting levels of inflammatory cytokine production, lower level of systemic activated T cells, increased levels of systemic T regulatory, increased production of anti-viral anti-protease serpins at the female genital tract and reduced numbers of HIV target cells (mainly CD4+ CCR5+ T cells) in the FGT This project aims to induce an Immune Quiescence phenotype (decreasing immune activation) to prevent HIV infection
In New York, the achievement of 90-90-90 goals is jeopardized not by limited access to affordable care and treatment, but by persistent disparities in HIV viral suppression (VS). Complex behavioral and structural barriers to achieving and maintaining VS require coordinated, combination approaches to meet medical and social service needs. In 2009, at 28 Ryan White Part A (RWPA)-funded agencies, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) launched a multi-component HIV Care Coordination Program (CCP) directed toward the most vulnerable, high-need persons living with HIV (PLWH) in NYC. A systematic CCP effectiveness study began in 2013 (R01 MH101028; PIs: Irvine, Nash). Findings to date suggest that the CCP is superior to usual care for high-need subgroups of PLWH, but there remains substantial room for improvement in short- and long-term VS. In an immediate evidence-to-practice feedback loop, the DOHMH is implementing a refined CCP model in 2018. Greater focusing, tailoring and cues for delivery of key components are expected to increase CCP engagement, reach, fidelity, scalability, effectiveness and impact. The aim of the proposed study is to estimate the effect of the revised (vs. original) CCP on timely VS (within 4 months of enrollment), using experimental methods.
The Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear receptor that controls the transcription of many genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. A recent study opens the hypothesis that Farnesoid X receptor also participates in deoxyribonucleic acid repair mechanisms and possibly in the fight against cell invasion by foreign genomes. This hypothesis implied that modulation of Farnesoid X receptor by ligands could modify Human Immunodeficiency Virus replication. The results of in vitro studies with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected cell lines indicate that indeed the modulation of Farnesoid X receptor activity by its ligands induces stimulation of virus production rapidly followed by cell death; the overall effect is therefore antiviral. Farnesoid X receptor ligands have also shown an effect on the reactivation of proviruses in cellular models of viral latency studies. This last data raises the hope of being able to intervene on the reservoir of Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It is therefore crucial to confirm on quiescent CD4 + T lymphocytes of patients whose viral load is controlled by antiretroviral treatment combining several antiretrovirals the results obtained with the in vitro models. Providing proof of concept that Farnesoid X receptor agonists can reactivate latent proviruses will open new therapeutic perspectives for attacking the Human Immunodeficiency Virus reservoir with a view to achieving a functional cure for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. The objective of the study is to confirm ex vivo the data obtained in vitro with cellular models and laboratory viral strains. It is therefore necessary to show that Farnesoid X receptor agonists can reactivate latent viruses or proviruses present in quiescent CD4 + T circulating lymphocytes prepared from venous blood of HIV-positive patients under cART. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive patients will be any patients, irrespective of the viral genotype, who initiated antiretroviral therapy, regardless of the combination of antiretrovirals, away from primary infection, when they already had a complete western blot, indicating an evolution of the infection without treatment and constitution of an already evolved reservoir. Patients will have had an undetectable viral load since initiation of treatment with a follow-up of at least one year and will have at least 500 CD4 + T lymphocytes / mm3.
This research study is being carried out to study a new way to possibly treat HIV. As part of this study, doctors will take some of your own white blood cells, called T-cells, and modify them so that they can identify and target your HIV cells. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the safety of these modified T cells and determine whether they have any effect on HIV infection.
In this retrospective cohort study, we mapped the care cascades for both Hypertension and HIV within a HIV program in Uganda with the goal of identifying opportunities for developing contextually appropriate integrated care models, .
This cluster-randomized trial aims to evaluate the efficacy of the use of oral HIV self-testing (HIVST) among individuals who are absent or who decline HIV testing during home-based HIV testing
Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the effect of 84 days of daily iron supplementation on iron status, gut microbiome profile, infectious disease frequency, and HIV disease severity in moderately anemic [hemoglobin 9 - <11 g/dL (6-59 mo); hemoglobin 9 - < 11.5 g/dL (5 -12 years)], HIV-infected Ugandan children between the ages of 6 mos and 12 years.
The purpose of this research study is to look at the brain's efficiency and ability to make up for deficits in the front of the brain to see if people living with HIV (PLWH) are still able to perform well on various cognitive tasks even though there are other underlying processes at work, like inflammation, that affect the brain in a negative way. Results of this study may provide insight into the pathophysiology of disease and may reveal arenas for future possible interventions in PLWH who have impaired neuropsychological performance.
Cross-sectional study of patients consulting in the emergency room of the Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM), to assess the implementation of an "opt-out" screening program for HIV and HCV and prospective follow-up for 3 months of positive cases.