There are about 173 clinical studies being (or have been) conducted in Malawi. The country of the clinical trial is determined by the location of where the clinical research is being studied. Most studies are often held in multiple locations & countries.
The primary purpose of this single-center, case-control, non-interventional study is to determine risk factors which contribute to the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) at Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH) in Malawi.
The purpose of this study is to identify important associations between complete and comprehensive clinical, laboratory, and genomic data derived from patients and tumor specimens, with prospectively recorded clinical outcomes. The investigators also hope to move beyond simple risk factor associations as previously described, to develop a composite score specifically for KS recurrence or progression, analogous to widely used risk scores that are used to direct up-front treatment of other cancers. In so doing, the investigators will draw on extremely granular data to prospectively identify patients who are most likely to benefit from new treatments.
The purpose of this study is to compare the pregnancy rates among women who are using the HIV drug Efavirenz and either the birth control injection or implant.
High neonatal mortality rates accounts for a substantial early loss of lives in Malawi; and has thus been a hindrance for Malawi to eradicate child deaths. From 2000 to 2011, Malawi achieved an overall reduction of 23% in under-five child mortality. The reduction was more substantial between the second and the fifth year of life, being 28%. However, in the neonatal period the reduction was half, at 14%. Neonatal deaths in developing countries are due to prematurity or low birth weight, neonatal infections, birth trauma related conditions and congenital anomalies. Being of low birth weight increases the risk of death four fold in the neonatal period. Even when low birth weight infants survive, their poorly developed immune function exposes them to increased morbidity in early life. Maternal nutrition represents by far the greatest influence among pregnancy environmental on birth weight in low income countries. There is strong evidence that health and dietary counselling is effective in improving child nutrition outcomes. Thus we propose to test the effectiveness in improving birth weight by a low cost intervention, community based health and nutrition counselling delivered to mothers during pregnancy in Malawi. On the other hand, in the Malawian context offering individualized dietetic counselling could be impeded by the healthcare workforce short fall. Currently the health workforce does not include dieticians . The use of lay health workers (LHW) has been identified as one of the effective strategies to meet the health workforce shortage challenges in low resource settings. It is on this basis that a study was planned, aimed at developing lay health worker delivered community based nutrition counselling to mothers during pregnancy and measuring its effectiveness in improving birth weight in the Malawian context. The study was comprised of an initial i) formative study, followed by ii) a cross-sectional survey. Findings of these two sub-studies were utilized to develop a nutrition counselling intervention. Finally iii) a cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (cRCT) aimed at measuring the effect of the intervention on birth size (weight, length, arm and abdominal circumferences) will now be conducted which is being elaborated in this protocol.
Although the current World Health Organization (WHO) recommended management package for acute diarrhoea (ORS, zinc and feeding advice) has contributed to significant reductions in diarrhoea associated mortality, over half a million children continue to die annually as a result of acute diarrhoeal episodes. In addition, rates of mortality in young children in the 90 days following an episode of acute diarrhoea appear at least as high as mortality that occurs during the acute episode. The long-term benefits of antibiotic administration may result from direct antimicrobial effects on pathogens or from other incompletely understood mechanisms including improved nutrition, alterations in immune tolerance or improved enteric function. Optimizing antibiotic treatment of acute diarrhoea episodes in very young children with severe disease may offer the opportunity to significantly reduce diarrhoea associated deaths in the 90 days following presentation for acute diarrhoea and may also improve growth. The investigators propose to evaluate the efficacy of an antibiotic (azithromycin) delivered in a specific, targeted fashion to young children (< 2 years of age) at high risk of diarrhoea associated mortality in a multi-site randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The study will evaluate the ability of the intervention to reduce mortality within 90 days of the acute diarrhoeal episode, and improve nutritional status over the same period.
This protocol concerns the implementation and evaluation of an intervention designed to realign the existing cadre of Community Health Workers (CHW) in Neno District, Malawi to better support the care needs of the clients they serve. The proposed intervention is a 'Household Model' where CHWs will be assigned to households, rather than HIV or TB specific patients, and will be trained to provide support for a wider range of conditions including HIV, hypertension, diabetes, and pediatric malnutrition. The new model is designed to improve retention in care for clients with chronic, non-communicable diseases, along with increased uptake of women's health services and treatment for pediatric malnutrition, while sustaining the high retention rates for clients in the HIV program. Eleven sites (health centres and hospitals) were arranged into six clusters by estimated size of the catchment area populations, with a population range of 11,680 to 26,260 and an average population of 20,400. The order in which the intervention will be rolled out across the sites will be randomized so that the intervention can be evaluated in a stepped-wedge cluster randomized controlled trial. These clusters were grouped based mostly on geographic location but also on catchment area sizes, in order to maximize feasibility of training for the CHW team and not overload CHW training sessions with too many trainees.
This is an unblinded cluster-randomized study to evaluate the effectiveness of two strategies for scripting/dispensing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on retention, virologic suppression, and cost compared to the standard of care. The study will be conducted in Malawi and Zambia among approximately 8,200 HIV-1-infected adults (18 years or older) who are stable on ART. Clusters will be randomized to one of three study arms: (1) standard of care (SOC) ART scripting (varies by country, region, clinic, and/or provider), (2) three-month ART scripting, and (3) six-month ART scripting. 30 clusters will be selected for the study, 15 in Malawi and 15 in Zambia, and will be randomized to a study arm.
An appropriate balance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids is important for support of neurocognitive development in healthy infants and toddlers. In young children recovering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM), excess omega-6 intake depletes omega-3 fatty acid status. This research will evaluate how novel ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) with balanced fatty acids improve the metabolic and neurocognitive effects in young children in Malawi recovering from SAM, yielding new knowledge that also has implications for development of well-nourished children.
This cluster-randomized controlled trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a four-day hospital-based intervention program for primary caregivers of children with severe malnutrition.
The primary purpose of this study is to assess the preventive vaccine efficacy (VE), safety and tolerability of a heterologous prime/boost regimen utilizing Ad26.Mos4.HIV and aluminum-phosphate adjuvanted Clade C gp140 for the prevention of Human Immuno Virus (HIV) infection in HIV-seronegative women residing in sub-Saharan Africa from confirmed HIV-1 infections diagnosed between the Month 7 and Month 24 visits.