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Tuberculosis is the current leading cause of death due to an identifiable infectious agent worldwide. The current standard regimen for tuberculosis requires a patient to take drug combination (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide) for six to eight month periods. The purpose of this study is to compare tuberculosis treatment therapy between the current standard regimen and PRS derived combinatorial regimen. PRS derived regimen may potentially allow for a shorter course of treatment, which may reduce problems associated with adherence, toxicity, and development of drug resistance.
Major Research Aim: To study novel molecular diagnostics and the pharmacokinetic variability among a spectrum of TB disease states, including severe forms of TB like disseminated TB, TB meningitis and drug resistant TB, among adults and children from multiple international sites.
Tuberculosis remains a concerning health problem, with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) now causing more deaths than acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). GSK3036656 is a compound with a novel mechanism of action under development for the treatment of tuberculosis. It suppresses protein synthesis in MTB by selectively inhibiting the enzyme Leucyl t-ribose nucleic acid (RNA) synthetase. Thus, this study will investigate the early bactericidal activity, safety and tolerability of GSK3036656 in up to four sequential cohorts of subjects with rifampicin-susceptible tuberculosis. The primary objective of this dose-escalation study is to establish the anti-tuberculosis effect of GSK3036656 on serial colony forming units (CFU) counts of MTB in sputum over 14 days of therapy. Subjects in each cohort will be randomized in 3:1 ratio to one of two treatments: either GSK3036656 or standard-of-care (RIFAFOUR® e-275) regimen. The approximate duration of the study for an individual subject will be 5 weeks, including 1 week of screening, 2 weeks of treatment period and another 2 weeks of final follow-up visit. RIFAFOUR e-275 is a registered trademark of Sanofi-Aventis.
Invariant Natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a unique subset of lymphocytes that express homogeneous TCR recognizing KRN7000 which was up-regulated by many kinds of cancer cells.The hypothesis of the investigators is that immunotherapy strategy of infusion of iNKT cells may resist inflection and decrease the tumor burden and improve overall survival. The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and efficacy of treatment of tuberculosis with malignant solid tumor by infusing of iNKT cells.
This project proposes to develop and pilot a novel smart phone-based intervention to improve tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence in Cambodia, which integrates video-enabled Directly Observed Treatment (vDOT) with an automated rewards system that transfers mobile money and eventual phone ownership to compliant patients. The results will be of immediate relevance to Cambodia's National TB Control Program (which is partnering with us), the major implementing field partner Operation ASHA (a leading TB-focused nonprofit organization), as well as other TB control programs seeking new alternatives to improving adherence, especially where traditional DOT may be infeasible or costly, and outside the area of TB where adherence to treatment is critical, such as HIV, and will provide key insights into mobile health (mHealth) programs in a setting relevant to other developing countries. The project will involve building new capacity in Cambodia for behavioral research, mHealth,and communications through hands-on training for study staff in-country, and through general training sessions for internal and external stakeholders.
This is a three-arm, open-label individually randomised controlled clinical trial investigating the benefits of the diagnostic use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials during the diagnostic process for tuberculosis (TB) and the risk of antimicrobial resistance. 1875 adults (≥18 years) presenting to primary care with TB symptoms will, after excluding acute illness, be randomised (1:1:1) to receiving azithromycin, amoxicillin or standard care. Diagnostic accuracy will be ascertained by comparing self-reported response to treatment on Day-8 to results of mycobacteriology tests (MTB culture, smear microscopy and Xpert/MTB/RIF). Antimicrobial resistance will be ascertained by comparing arms with respect to incidence of resistant Streptococcus pneumonia carriage cultured from nasopharyngeal swabs collected on Day-28. Clinical benefit will be ascertained by comparing clinical outcomes (hospitalization, active but untreated TB and mortality) by Day-57.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate and further refine a mobile support tool for patients receiving treatment for active tuberculosis. Half of participants will receive support and monitoring using a mobile phone software application and usual care, while the other half will receive usual care.
Tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) is the most severe manifestation of TB, resulting in death or neurological disability in up to 50% of affected patients, despite antibacterial treatment. This TBM treatment follows the model for pulmonary TB by using the same first-line TB drugs (a combination of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) and the same dosing guidelines, although it is known that penetration of two of these drugs (rifampicin and ethambutol) into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is limited. Improvement of treatment of TBM is urgently needed. To do so, a combination of two interventions will be investigated in this study. A series of phase II clinical trials on higher doses of the pivotal TB drug rifampicin in Indonesian patients with TBM have shown that the dose of rifampicin can be increased from 10 mg/kg orally (standard dose) up to 30 mg/kg orally, resulting in a strong increase in exposure to this drug in plasma and CSF, no increase in grade III or IV adverse effects, and a reduction in mortality. Similarly, higher doses of rifampicin up to 35 mg/kg resulted in strong increases in plasma concentrations; the doses were well tolerated and reduced time to sputum conversion in African pulmonary TB patients. Next to a higher dose of rifampicin, the approved antibacterial drug linezolid seems a good candidate for a new TBM regimen. The drug penetrates well into the CSF and is applied successfully against other central nervous system (CNS) infections (e.g. caused by penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). In a study in China, linezolid in a dose of 600 mg BID orally strongly increased recovery of patients with TBM response. Linezolid is also being investigated as a new drug for (drug-resistant) pulmonary TB in numerous studies, in a dose of 1200 mg once daily. More severe adverse effects to this drug typically occur only after prolonged treatment during several months, not during short-term treatment. Overall, linezolid is expected to be a promising and tolerable candidate for a new intensified TBM treatment regimen consisting of a backbone of high dose rifampicin plus linezolid.
Severe tuberculosis (TB) leads to wasting and anorexia, increasing risk of the refeeding syndrome (RFS) as defined by current criteria. TB patients have high metabolic rates and require a high calorie diet, with nutritional supplementation programs improving outcomes. BMI inversely correlates with mortality in these patients. Risk of RFS, a life-threatening syndrome associated with initiation of feeding after a period of low intake, has not been studied in this population and it is not known whether severely malnourished TB patients benefit from lower caloric intake. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of RFS in TB inpatients in rural India and correlate this with baseline and inpatient caloric intake.
A new effective tuberculosis (TB) vaccine is essential to achieve World Health Organization (WHO) End TB goals and eliminate TB by 2050. The optimal long-term strategy would be a combination of serial mass campaigns in adults, coupled with universal newborn vaccination. Newborns are the only human population without prior mycobacterial exposure in TB endemic countries and as such, live attenuated mycobacterial vaccines may offer better protection to this naïve population compared to adults. MTBVAC is a novel TB vaccine candidate generated by genetically attenuating an M. tuberculosis clinical isolate of the EuroAmerican lineage. MTBVAC is based on two independent, stable genetic deletions of the genes coding for two major virulence factors, phoP coding for the transcription factor PhoP and fadD26 coding for the synthesis of PDIM. Since MTBVAC contains most of the genes deleted from BCG, it presents a wider collection of mycobacterial antigens to the host immune system. Safety and immunogenicity of MTBVAC has been demonstrated in BCG naïve adults; and MTBVAC appears safe in a small ongoing Phase 1b study in South African newborns. Definitive demonstration of safety and immunogenicity at the optimal MTBVAC dose is key to progression into multi-centre efficacy trials in newborns. A Phase 2a dose-defining study of MTBVAC to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity, immunogenicity, and potential for IGRA conversion and reversion, of MTBVAC in South African newborns. Ninety-nine HIV unexposed, BCG naïve newborns will be randomized to receive either BCG 2.5 x 105 CFU (n=24) or MTBVAC at one of three dose levels (n=75). Allocation will be double blind. Enrolment will be sequential into 3 cohorts of increasing MTBVAC dose (Cohort 1: n=25 MTBVAC 2.5 x 10E+04 and n=8 BCG; Cohort 2: n=25 MTBVAC 2.5 x 10E+05 and n=8 BCG; Cohort 3: n=25 MTBVAC 2.5 x 10E+06 and n=8 BCG). Dose escalation will be staggered to allow gradual evaluation of safety; final selection of the dose for Cohort 3 will be based on all available safety and immunogenicity data.