There are about 74 clinical studies being (or have been) conducted in Cambodia. The country of the clinical trial is determined by the location of where the clinical research is being studied. Most studies are often held in multiple locations & countries.
Beriberi is a potentially fatal disease caused by vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency that still occurs in Southeast Asia despite near eradication elsewhere. Mothers with a diet low in thiamine produce thiamine-poor milk, putting their infants at a high risk of developing thiamine deficiency and beriberi. There is also a growing body of evidence suggesting thiamine deficiency not severe enough to cause clinical symptoms may negatively effect cognitive development and functioning of the infant. Since human milk should be the sole source of nutrition for babies during the first six months, maternal thiamine intake must be improved to combat this disease. The investigators' recent study of thiamine-fortified fish sauce in Cambodia showed that fortification could increase maternal and infant thiamine status'. However, centrally produced fish sauce may not reach the poorest communities who make their own fish sauce, and fish sauce is not consumed in all regions where we find thiamine deficiency. Salt, by contrast, is a common condiment in most regions of the world and has proven to be a successful global fortification vehicle for iodine. Suboptimal maternal thiamine intake puts exclusively breastfed infants at risk of low thiamine status, impaired cognitive development, and infantile beriberi, which can be fatal. Thiamine fortification of salt is a potentially low-cost and sustainable means of combating suboptimal thiamine status; however knowledge gaps must be filled before thiamine fortification can proceed. In this study, mothers will consume thiamine supplements in order to model the thiamine dose required to optimize human milk thiamine concentrations for the prevention of beriberi. Other thiamine biomarkers will be assessed, and usual salt intake will be measured. Finally, the investigators will assess the effects of early-life thiamine exposure on infant neuro-cognitive development.
Background: Some mosquitos carry viruses that can cause disease. Some examples are dengue and Zika. The mosquitos spread disease by biting people and infecting them with the virus. Children, elderly people, and people who are already sick are especially likely to get infected. Researchers want to learn more to help make new medicines to treat these viral infections. Objective: To learn more about how mosquitos infect people, and why young children are more likely to get sick than other people. Eligibility: Healthy children 2-9 years old who live near the study site. This is Kampong Speu District Referral Hospital in Chbar Mon, Cambodia. Design: At visit 1, participants will have a physical exam. A small amount of blood will be taken from their arm or finger. Parents will answer questions about the participant s general health and medical history. Participants will come back to the study site every wet season and every dry season for the next 3 years. The visits will be the same as visit 1 and take about 1 hour. If at any time during the study the participant gets a fever and has other symptoms that could be caused by these viral diseases, they should be brought to the study site. These symptoms might include headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle pain, or joint pain. They can also include a rash that lasts longer than 12 hours. Participation ends after the final study visit in late 2021.
The project is the collaboration with the lead agencies National Institute of Public Health, World Vision and Emory University World Vision has a history of successfully implementing "Positive Deviance/Hearth (PDH)" programs across the globe. PDH is a community-based intervention utilizing locally appropriate health and infant feeding practices to rehabilitate underweight children and promote behavioral changes in caregivers. A recent systematic review on the PD/Hearth approach found that although some programs show clear success in particular settings, overall, the results were mixed for program effectiveness. Furthermore, with the growing use of mobile phones and technology in the world, including Cambodia, there have been various studies and a systematic review that found SMS reminders and voice recordings to have promising impact on behavior change of patients for smoking cessation and improved adherence to drugs for asthma patients. Although there are positive findings around the use of mobile devices to improve behavior change, there has yet to be a study that examines the impact of mobile phones on improving behavior change of caregivers related to nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), health, and caring practices, which as a result, would decrease the prevalence of underweight in children 6-23 months of age. This study will provide evidence on the effectiveness of the PDH model in Cambodia compared to the current standard of care. Investigators believe the PDH approach will be a powerful tool to reduce child malnutrition. In addition, given the intensity and cost burden associated with PDH, investigators will simultaneously test if the intensity of the PDH model can be reduced by introducing an innovative application of mHealth to replace 50% of face-to-face education sessions (5 days) and all follow up visits with mobile support calls. Collectively this research will provide critical data to inform program operations on the optimal and most effective method to reduce child underweight in Cambodia. In Year 1, the purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of contextualized messages through PDH programs and a mobile technology (mHealth), to improve knowledge, behaviour change, and level of confidence of caregivers with underweight children aged 6-23 months in feeding, hygiene, health-seeking, and caring practices. In Year 2, the study's aim will be to assess the prevention of underweight in the siblings of the children included in the three programs outside of the 360 study subjects from Year 1.
This study is to determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of antimalarial drug resistance-linked genetic mutations in clinical P. falciparum infections in the Greater Mekong Subregion
This study is a multi-centre, open-label randomised trial to assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of the Triple ACT artemether-lumefantrine+amodiaquine (AL+AQ) compared to the ACT artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Cambodia and Vietnam. The estimated total sample size is 600 patients from 2 sites in Cambodia and 2 sites in Vietnam. There are 2 treatment arms Arm 1: Artemether-lumefantrine for 3 days Arm 2: Artemether-lumefantrine for 3 days plus Amodiaquine for 3 days. According to the World Health Organization guideline, all patients except children under 10 kilograms will also be treated with a single dose of primaquine as a gametocytocidal treatment.
Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) remains a leading cause of childhood mortality and morbidity. Between 2007 and 2012, Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC), Siem Reap, Cambodia documented that S. pneumoniae was responsible for around 10% of bloodstream infections in hospitalised children, with a case fatality rate of 15.6%. The use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV), covering between 7 and 13 of the >90 pneumococcal serotypes, has resulted in significant declines in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence in countries where they are included in routine childhood immunisation schedules. Paediatric radiologic pneumonia incidence is also reduced by PCV, but the impact on clinical pneumonia is minimal. The vaccines have had an effect on reducing the burden of drug resistant IPD, although this may not be sustained. Given the large number of serotypes not included in the current PCV formulations, it is not surprising that initial declines in overall IPD incidence have been eroded by, for the time being, small increases in IPD due to non-vaccine serotypes. To date most data on this serotype replacement disease has come from high-income countries. It less clear how much serotype replacement will occur in low and middle income countries, where pre-PCV disease incidence is generally higher and other factors, such as unregulated antimicrobial consumption, may play a role in encouraging non-vaccine serotype infections. Nasopharyngeal colonisation by S. pneumoniae is common in childhood and is an essential prerequisite for invasive disease. Surveillance of pneumococcal colonisation can provide important data regarding serotype replacement and disease-associated serotypes, and may also allow prediction of likely IPD incidence changes post-vaccine introduction. A recent study of pneumococcal colonisation in children attending the AHC out-patients has documented an overall colonisation prevalence of approximately 65%. In January 2015, Cambodia will introduce the 13-valent PCV (PCV13; serotypes covered 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, 19A, 23F). The vaccine will be rolled out nationally with a 3+0 dosing schedule (6, 10 and 14 weeks) and no catch up campaign. There is no robust national surveillance system in place to monitor the effects of PCV13 introduction.
In Cambodia, HIV is prevalent in several high-risk groups including among female entertainment workers (FEWs) who work at entertainment venues such as karaoke bars and massage parlors and may engage in direct or indirect sex work. Reaching FEWs with sexual and reproductive health services such as testing and treatment for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and contraception has been difficult because they are hidden and stigmatized. Mobile phone-based interventions may prove to be an effective way to reach this population and connect them with the existing services. This article describes study design and implementation of a two-arm randomized controlled trial of a mobile health intervention (the Mobile Link) aiming to improve sexual and reproductive health outcomes among FEWs in Cambodia. A two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be used to determine the effectiveness of a mobile phone-based text/voice messaging intervention. The intervention will be developed through a participatory process; 50 FEWs will work alongside researchers in focus groups to modify and tailor behavior change theory-based text and voice messages. Then, 600 FEWs will be recruited and randomly assigned into one of two arms: (1) a control group and (2) a mobile phone message group (either text messages or voice messages, delivery method chosen by participant). The primary outcome measures include HIV testing, condom use, STI testing and treatment and contraceptive use. If the Mobile Link trial is successful, an increase in condom use, screening and treatment for HIV and STI and contraception use is expected. These outcomes would lead to a reduction in the prevalence of HIV, STIs and unintended pregnancies. This trial is unique in a number of ways. First, the option of participation mode is offered to allow participants to choose the message medium that best links them to services. Second, this is the first RCT of a mobile phone-based behavior change intervention using SMS/VMs to support linkage to sexual and reproductive health services in Cambodia. Third, we are working with is a hidden, hard-to-reach and dynamic population with which traditional methods of outreach have not been fully successful.
Due to waning of infectious as well as vaccine immunity and lack of vaccination boosters, a large number of adolescents and adults are no longer immunized against Bordetella pertussis, the agent of whooping cough and consequently may contract whooping cough. Furthermore, these populations represent a reservoir of the infectious agent from which the dissemination to non-immune infants is possible, causing severe illness, or even death, in this age group. Few studies have been carried out on whooping cough in developing countries (incidence, contaminator's age, etc.) and, specifically, none have assessed the duration of protection induced by the whole cell pertussis (wP) vaccine mainly presently used in these countries. However, data on the duration of vaccine induced protection are essential to determine i) the usefulness of vaccine boosters and ii) the target age group for these boosters. The aims of the present study are: - To evaluate the proportion of confirmed pertussis cases in infants presenting whooping cough syndrome (WP1a) - To evaluate the proportion of confirmed pertussis cases or healthy carriers among contact cases - To determine origin of the infant's contamination (WP1b) - To determine the duration of protection induced by the wP vaccines used in contact cases and the child population aged 3 to 15 yo (WP1b and WP2) - To bring new scientific evidences documenting the potential need for initiating boosters (WP1b and WP2) - To allow a comparison of the results with those obtained using the same methodology for the acellular pertussis vaccine and/or in other contexts. Potential implications for the use of pertussis vaccines in low and moderate income countries. - To increase local capabilities by the transfer of materials and expertise that will make the diagnosis of pertussis possible in the centres of reference and strengthen a pertussis monitoring network in the implicated countries. - To improve children's health through a better match of the vaccination schedule according to the reality of the situation.
This study will evaluate the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the FilmArray Global Fever (GF) Panel.
The World Health Organization recommends that all high endemic countries for HBV infection based their mother to child transmission prevention strategies on vaccination of all children and administration of immunoglobulins (HBIG) to infants born to infected mothers in the first 24 hours after birth. Lack of access to antenatal screening and to HBIG significantly results in failure of this strategy in many countries. Moreover, despite sero-vaccination, 10 to 15% of infants of mothers that are positive for HBsAg and HBeAg are still infected, as high levels of HBV replication occurring in the third quarter of pregnancy act as a major risk factor. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of an operational strategy to prevent HBV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in Cambodia based on the use of rapid tests HBs Ag and HBe Ag to screen HBV infection and a treatment by TDF for patients with a positive HBeAg test with a "test and treat" strategy for those seen for Antenatal Care (ANC) from 24 weeks of amenorrhea. In all cases, vaccination of the newborn will be carried out according to the national protocol in Cambodia i.e. 4 injections at 24 hours, 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. A phase IV multicenter observational and interventional non randomized prospective study will be conducted in 4 maternity in Cambodia. The primary outcome will be the proportion of active HBV infection in new-born at 6 months of life estimated by HBs Ag positivity. The study will aim to document the acceptability and the operational implementation of the study using rapid tests usable in all health centers and a drug available in all the country thanks to HIV national program. The results will be helpful for Cambodian government in order to implement guidelines and algorithm follow-up for HBV-infected pregnant women.