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NCT ID: NCT03831906 Recruiting - Tuberculosis Clinical Trials

TB-Speed Pneumonia

Start date: March 20, 2019
Phase: N/A
Study type: Interventional

Despite progress in reducing tuberculosis (TB) incidence and mortality in the past 20 years, TB is a top ten cause of death in children under 5 years worldwide. However, childhood TB remains massively underreported and undiagnosed, mostly because of the challenges in confirming its diagnosis due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease and the difficulty in obtaining expectorated sputum in children. Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5 years worldwide. There is growing evidence that, in high TB burden settings, TB is common in children with pneumonia, with up to 23% of those admitted to hospital with an initial diagnosis of pneumonia later being diagnosed as TB. However, the current WHO standard of care (SOC) for young children with pneumonia considers a diagnosis of TB only if the child has a history of prolonged symptoms or fails to respond to antibiotic treatments. Hence, TB is often under-diagnosed or diagnosed late in children presenting with pneumonia. In this context, the investigators are proposing to assess the impact on mortality of adding the systematic early detection of TB using Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra, performed on NPAs and stool samples, to the WHO SOC for children with severe pneumonia, followed by immediate initiation of anti-TB treatment in children testing positive on any of the samples. TB-Speed Pneumonia is a multicentric, stepped wedge diagnostic trial conducted in six countries with high TB incidence: Cote d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Uganda, Mozambique, Zambia and Cambodia.

NCT ID: NCT03727308 Recruiting - Induced Abortion Clinical Trials

Study of Clinic-based Versus Self-use of Medical Abortion Pills

Start date: May 30, 2018
Study type: Observational

The goal of the study is to determine whether important clinical outcomes differ among women who access a combined medical abortion regimen from a pharmacy when compared with those who access it from a facility.

NCT ID: NCT03726593 Recruiting - Clinical trials for Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria (Drug Resistant)

Drug Combinations of Atovaquone-Proguanil (AP) With ACT

Start date: October 4, 2018
Phase: Phase 4
Study type: Interventional

Investigators are conducting this study due to recent reports of many of existing malaria drugs becoming less effective for treatment of malaria. The drugs may not always kill all the parasites, therefore not all patients with malaria are being cured. The main objective of the study is to find out which malaria drugs and what drug combinations are still effective in Cambodia, an area of multi-drug resistance where 4-5 artemisinin-based combination therapies have shown inadequate response, below that established by the World Health Organization (WHO). New drug combinations (taking more than one drug for malaria at the same time), as long as well tolerated, can provide cure in patients that harbor parasites not responsive to standard first-line medications. Human genetic testing will be done to identify patients who may have suboptimal response to treatments and to study the differences in human gene expression to explain why some persons are at higher risk of complications during treatment. Markers of drug resistance to commonly used antimalarial drugs will also be evaluated and shared with national malaria program (CNM) to better guide future malaria treatment decisions in Cambodia.

NCT ID: NCT03632486 Recruiting - Fever Clinical Trials

Bedside Ultrasound Predicts Progression of Severity of Disease in Dengue Fever

Start date: August 13, 2018
Study type: Observational

The purpose of this study is determine the ability of bedside ultrasound performed in the Emergency Department and Outpatient Department can predict the severity of disease during a Dengue Fever outbreak in children, in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Our hypothesis is that the presence of gallbladder wall thickening, pulmonary edema/effusions, ascites, pericardial effusion in children correlates with progression to more severe disease.

NCT ID: NCT03616288 Not yet recruiting - Thiamine Deficiency Clinical Trials

Trial of Thiamine Supplementation in Cambodia

Start date: September 2018
Phase: N/A
Study type: Interventional

Beriberi is a potentially fatal disease caused by vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency that still occurs in Southeast Asia despite near eradication elsewhere. Mothers with a diet low in thiamine produce thiamine-poor milk, putting their infants at a high risk of developing thiamine deficiency and beriberi. There is also a growing body of evidence suggesting thiamine deficiency not severe enough to cause clinical symptoms may negatively effect cognitive development and functioning of the infant. Since human milk should be the sole source of nutrition for babies during the first six months, maternal thiamine intake must be improved to combat this disease. The investigators' recent study of thiamine-fortified fish sauce in Cambodia showed that fortification could increase maternal and infant thiamine status'. However, centrally produced fish sauce may not reach the poorest communities who make their own fish sauce, and fish sauce is not consumed in all regions where we find thiamine deficiency. Salt, by contrast, is a common condiment in most regions of the world and has proven to be a successful global fortification vehicle for iodine. Suboptimal maternal thiamine intake puts exclusively breastfed infants at risk of low thiamine status, impaired cognitive development, and infantile beriberi, which can be fatal. Thiamine fortification of salt is a potentially low-cost and sustainable means of combating suboptimal thiamine status; however knowledge gaps must be filled before thiamine fortification can proceed. In this study, mothers will consume thiamine supplements in order to model the thiamine dose required to optimize human milk thiamine concentrations for the prevention of beriberi. Other thiamine biomarkers will be assessed, and usual salt intake will be measured. Finally, the investigators will assess the effects of early-life thiamine exposure on infant neuro-cognitive development.

NCT ID: NCT03602690 Recruiting - HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials

Evaluation of Third-line cART Regimen in Cambodia (3DICAM)

Start date: October 4, 2018
Phase: Phase 2
Study type: Interventional

The study aims to evaluate the virological effectiveness of a third-line regimen combining dolutegravir (DTG), ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DRV/r) and optimized NRTI in Cambodian HIV-infected adults, who failed a protease inhibitors (PI)-based second-line regimen despite 3 months of boosted adherence counseling (BAC).

NCT ID: NCT03534245 Recruiting - Dengue Fever Clinical Trials

Investigating Vector-Borne Determinants of Aedes Transmitted Arboviral Infections in Cambodia: An Observational Longitudinal Cohort Study in Children

Start date: April 24, 2019
Study type: Observational

Background: Some mosquitos carry viruses that can cause disease. Some examples are dengue and Zika. The mosquitos spread disease by biting people and infecting them with the virus. Children, elderly people, and people who are already sick are especially likely to get infected. Researchers want to learn more to help make new medicines to treat these viral infections. Objective: To learn more about how mosquitos infect people, and why young children are more likely to get sick than other people. Eligibility: Healthy children 2-9 years old who live near the study site. This is Kampong Speu District Referral Hospital in Chbar Mon, Cambodia. Design: At visit 1, participants will have a physical exam. A small amount of blood will be taken from their arm or finger. Parents will answer questions about the participant s general health and medical history. Participants will come back to the study site every wet season and every dry season for the next 3 years. The visits will be the same as visit 1 and take about 1 hour. If at any time during the study the participant gets a fever and has other symptoms that could be caused by these viral diseases, they should be brought to the study site. These symptoms might include headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle pain, or joint pain. They can also include a rash that lasts longer than 12 hours. Participation ends after the final study visit in late 2021.

NCT ID: NCT03399058 Recruiting - Clinical trials for Underweight Children Aged 6-23 Month Old (WAZ < -1)

Innovative Nutrition and mHealth Evidence Building Project

Start date: November 27, 2017
Phase: N/A
Study type: Interventional

The project is the collaboration with the lead agencies National Institute of Public Health, World Vision and Emory University World Vision has a history of successfully implementing "Positive Deviance/Hearth (PDH)" programs across the globe. PDH is a community-based intervention utilizing locally appropriate health and infant feeding practices to rehabilitate underweight children and promote behavioral changes in caregivers. A recent systematic review on the PD/Hearth approach found that although some programs show clear success in particular settings, overall, the results were mixed for program effectiveness. Furthermore, with the growing use of mobile phones and technology in the world, including Cambodia, there have been various studies and a systematic review that found SMS reminders and voice recordings to have promising impact on behavior change of patients for smoking cessation and improved adherence to drugs for asthma patients. Although there are positive findings around the use of mobile devices to improve behavior change, there has yet to be a study that examines the impact of mobile phones on improving behavior change of caregivers related to nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), health, and caring practices, which as a result, would decrease the prevalence of underweight in children 6-23 months of age. This study will provide evidence on the effectiveness of the PDH model in Cambodia compared to the current standard of care. Investigators believe the PDH approach will be a powerful tool to reduce child malnutrition. In addition, given the intensity and cost burden associated with PDH, investigators will simultaneously test if the intensity of the PDH model can be reduced by introducing an innovative application of mHealth to replace 50% of face-to-face education sessions (5 days) and all follow up visits with mobile support calls. Collectively this research will provide critical data to inform program operations on the optimal and most effective method to reduce child underweight in Cambodia. In Year 1, the purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of contextualized messages through PDH programs and a mobile technology (mHealth), to improve knowledge, behaviour change, and level of confidence of caregivers with underweight children aged 6-23 months in feeding, hygiene, health-seeking, and caring practices. In Year 2, the study's aim will be to assess the prevention of underweight in the siblings of the children included in the three programs outside of the 360 study subjects from Year 1.

NCT ID: NCT03384498 Recruiting - Clinical trials for Plasmodium Falciparum

Malaria Genetic Surveillance

Start date: October 2016
Study type: Observational

This study is to determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of antimalarial drug resistance-linked genetic mutations in clinical P. falciparum infections in the Greater Mekong Subregion

NCT ID: NCT03355664 Recruiting - Malaria, Falciparum Clinical Trials

Study to Compare the Triple ACT AL+AQ With the ACT AL in Cambodia and Vietnam

Start date: March 19, 2018
Phase: Phase 3
Study type: Interventional

This study is a multi-centre, open-label randomised trial to assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of the Triple ACT artemether-lumefantrine+amodiaquine (AL+AQ) compared to the ACT artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Cambodia and Vietnam. The estimated total sample size is 600 patients from 2 sites in Cambodia and 2 sites in Vietnam. There are 2 treatment arms Arm 1: Artemether-lumefantrine for 3 days Arm 2: Artemether-lumefantrine for 3 days plus Amodiaquine for 3 days. According to the World Health Organization guideline, all patients except children under 10 kilograms will also be treated with a single dose of primaquine as a gametocytocidal treatment. Funder :Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) Grant reference number: OPP1132628