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The hyperinflation ventilator was performed in different modalities and ventilatory adjustments, with total pressure of 40cmH2O. The inspiratory volume, inspiratory time, mean airway pressure, inspiratory and expiratory flow, and bias flow were evaluated.
Pneumonia continues to be a leading cause of death in children under five years of age worldwide. Many studies have evaluated clinical signs and symptoms that may predict pneumonia. A recent meta-analysis found that no singular physical exam finding predicted pneumonia. The World Health Organization (WHO) Criteria diagnose pneumonia based on fast breathing; however, tachypnea has not been shown to strongly predict pneumonia. This study will evaluate accuracy of clinical history, physical exam and WHO criteria, laboratory findings, and lung ultrasound compared with chest radiograph for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children under five years of age in a resource limited setting. Determining diagnostic accuracy of these findings may help derive a clinical decision rule that may more accurately predict which children have pneumonia than current WHO guidelines.
The study has been conducted to measure the clinical outcome of early intervention with colistin inhalation in patients with ventilator associated pneumonia suspected to have multidrug resistant gram -ve bacteria
To identifying biomarkers in patients with pneumonia
Multiple myeloma is an incurable blood cancer of plasma cells that occurs in older individuals. Novel agents (proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory agents) have substantially improved the overall response rates, progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with multiple myeloma. Patients with multiple myeloma are at high risk of developing life-threatening Streptococcus pneumoniae infections, while clinical efficacy and safety of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines in multiple myeloma patients receiving novel agents have not been studied before. The main aim of this study is to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in multiple myeloma patients treated with novel agents.
The purpose of the study is to see whether the antibiotic combination of 100mg doxycycline, 500mg azithromycin and 300mg rifabutin is a safe and effective treatment for coronary artery disease which has not responded to 'standard treatment'. Coronary artery disease is the process of plaque build up within the walls of the arteries responsible for supplying the heart with oxygen and nutrients. plaque is usually made up of fatty deposits, minerals and various amounts of tissue and white cells which eventually narrows the artery, reducing blood flow to the heart. The resulting damage and build up of fat leads to inflammation of the arterial wall and eventually the arteries narrow. The researchers involved in this study consider that a pathogen called Chlamydophila pneumoniae, which can live inside cells may cause this inflammation of the arterial wall. The purpose of this study is to see if treatment with this antibiotic combination in patients with CHD is safe and effective in reducing disease severity measured at coronary angiography and improving quality of life. Approximately 60 patients will be involved in this trial. the treatment period is 90 days with a further 90 day follow up period.
To investigate the Mycoplasma pneumoniae-specific circulating antibody-secreting cell (ASC) response and Mycoplasma pneumoniae-specific interferon (INF)-γ-secreting T cell response, along with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology, in a cohort of children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and controls.
Incidence and morbi-mortality of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) are increasing. Early and fast diagnosis and treatment improve PCP prognosis. Biological diagnosis is based on the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii, mainly by PCR, in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) obtained from bronchial fibroscopy. However this invasive exam is not always possible in emergency in suspected patient and others non invasive (sputa) and/or non-targeted (bronchial aspiration) are sent to the laboratory (25% of cases, data from the Grenoble University Hospital). Diagnosis performances of these non invasive/non-targeted samples are not clearly established. In this study, the investigators aimed to establish the diagnosis value of non-invasive and/or non-targeted respiratory samples (oral fluids, sputa and bronchial aspiration) for the PCP diagnosis, compared to the gold-standard (Pneumocystis PCR on BAL, beta-D-glucans testing on serum and radio-clinical records).
In Ethiopia, great majorities (95%) of households rely on solid biomass fuels such as wood, muck, crop residues, and charcoal burned in highly polluting stoves to meet the basic household energy needs with its severe health consequences due to emission of toxic indoor air pollutants. Correspondingly, household air pollution (HAP) from biomass fuel use is now estimated to be responsible for nearly 3.5 million premature deaths annually, with the highest disease burdens experienced by countries in sub-Saharan Africa. HAP ranks as the highest environmental risk factors to premature deaths globally and 2nd leading risk factor next to childhood underweight in most of sub-Saharan Africa countries as well as 3rd leading risk factor of disease next to childhood underweight, and suboptimal breastfeeding in Ethiopia. Usually prevention efforts aimed at reducing HAP and related health burdens have been focused on the use of energy efficient cookstoves. There is, however, rigorous lack of evidence in Ethiopia or in other similar settings whether it is possible to achieve adequate HAP reduction and improve health with locally made energy efficient baking stoves from a public health point of view. Particularly, the popular Ethiopian energy efficient "Injera" baking stove has not been researched through stove trial inquiry. Therefore, research studies are required in Ethiopia on health benefits achieved when households adopt energy efficient baking stoves. In view of that, cluster randomized controlled trial will be employed with experimental study design for one year to test the effectiveness of the Ethiopian improved "Injera" baking stove intervention on reducing HAP and childhood acute respiratory infection (ARI) through comparing equal size groups of children before and after part of households received an improved "Injera" baking stove. Accordingly, the proposed stove trial aims to address an important research gap by determining whether the Ethiopian improved "Injera" baking biomass stove intervention can adequately reduce HAP exposure to prevent childhood acute respiratory infection. With this objective, the proposed stove trial will test the hypothesis that there is a statistically significant difference in HAP levels and incidence of childhood ARI when using traditional versus improved "Injera" baking stove in Northwest Ethiopia
Non-inferiority, multicenter, prospective double-blind, randomized clinical trial of two parallel groups. The randomization between the 2 study groups will be carried out according to a scheme generated by a computer program, in blocks of 6 and stratified by centers. The antibiotic treatment will be evaluated during 5 days compared to the usual antibiotic treatment for more than 7 days in patients with community-acquired pneumonia with a Pneumonia Severity Index IV-V severity score who present an adequate response in the first 4 days of hospital antibiotic treatment.