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Numerous elderly patients are suffering from aspiration pneumonia due to anatomical or functional predisposing factors including enteral tube feeding, swallowing difficulties, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Previous studies have been demonstrated that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an acceptable means of managing chronic aspiration, atelectasis, and GERD. The purpose of this study is to determine whether nocturnal nasal CPAP is beneficial in patients with aspiration pneumonia and that it would contribute to the rapid clinical stability of aspiration pneumonia.
HIV-infected patients are 30- to 100-fold more susceptible to invasive pneumococcal diseases. Pneumococcal vaccination is the best way to decrease the large pneumococcal disease burden, but the optimal timing of vaccination is still unclear. HIV-infected subjects aged ≥ 18 years were recruited and divided into two age-matched groups: group 1 (subjects with CD4 T-cell counts ≥350 cells/µL) and group 2 (subjects with CD4 T-cell counts <350 cells/µL). Multiplex opsonophagocytic killing assay was used to compare immunogenicity after the immunization of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).
Molecular diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias is an innovative way to potentially improve the diagnostic accuracy of surgical lung biopsies (SLBs), introducing molecular classifiers of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) vs. non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), the 2 main types of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). The investigators hypothesize that pre-defined gene expression profiles previously identified on large lung explants can still be identified and reproducible on smaller, clinically available surgical lung biopsies (SLBs), and can be used to increase diagnostic accuracy during multi-disciplinary discussion. The investigators also hypothesize that the expression level of individual, preselected genes that accurately differentiate IPF from NSIP on lung explants can be reproduced on SLBs. The investigators will isolate RNA from SLBs obtained from patients with IIP and perform microarray analysis to verify the reproducibility of gene expression profiles on SLBs. Individual genes expression levels will be determined by RT-PCR. The diagnosis will be determined by MDD and further validated by prospective follow-up of patients for a period of 3 years. The investigators will assess the impact of molecular diagnostic techniques on interobserver agreement during multi-disciplinary discussion. The investigators will prospectively follow the clinical course of patients after SLB for a period of 3 years to validate the diagnosis, and asses the diagnostic accuracy of molecular techniques.
Despite progress in reducing tuberculosis (TB) incidence and mortality in the past 20 years, TB is a top ten cause of death in children under 5 years worldwide. However, childhood TB remains massively underreported and undiagnosed, mostly because of the challenges in confirming its diagnosis due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease and the difficulty in obtaining expectorated sputum in children. Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5 years worldwide. There is growing evidence that, in high TB burden settings, TB is common in children with pneumonia, with up to 23% of those admitted to hospital with an initial diagnosis of pneumonia later being diagnosed as TB. However, the current WHO standard of care (SOC) for young children with pneumonia considers a diagnosis of TB only if the child has a history of prolonged symptoms or fails to respond to antibiotic treatments. Hence, TB is often under-diagnosed or diagnosed late in children presenting with pneumonia. In this context, the investigators are proposing to assess the impact on mortality of adding the systematic early detection of TB using Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra, performed on NPAs and stool samples, to the WHO SOC for children with severe pneumonia, followed by immediate initiation of anti-TB treatment in children testing positive on any of the samples. TB-Speed Pneumonia is a multicentric, stepped wedge diagnostic trial conducted in six countries with high TB incidence: Cote d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Uganda, Mozambique, Zambia and Cambodia.
The purpose of this study is to assess if there is decrease in cough during flexible bronchoscopy and endobronchial ultrasound when different modes of lidocaine administration are used. The modes of administration being evaluated are topical, nebulized and atomized.
The current standard for cataract surgery is phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. In this procedure, topical anesthesia has become favoured over local anesthetic blocks due to potential serious complications resulting from retrobulbar or peribulbar anesthesia. Routinely, intravenous sedation is used to supplement the topical anesthesia. If patients are not fasted, there is the potential to reduce preoperative discomfort and anxiety, ultimately improving the satisfaction with the care received. An additional benefit is that liberal fasting policies allow for flexibility in the scheduling of cases, particularly for urgent or semi-urgent situations. Clinical practice guidelines for cataract surgery published by the Canadian Ophthalmological Society (COS) recommend that fasting is unnecessary if only topical anesthesia is used without intravenous (IV) opiates or sedation. In general, these suggestions are in agreement with guidelines from the United Kingdom's Royal College of Ophthalmologists, who note that "it is unnecessary to fast patients for local anesthetic cataract surgery." According to the CAS practice guidelines, the same fasting restrictions are applied when IV sedation or anesthesia with peripheral nerve blocks (e.g. retrobulbar or peribulbar blocks) are administered. At our centre at the Kensington Eye Institute (KEI) in Toronto, Canada, almost all cataract patients receive fentanyl and midazolam, with propofol given only in rare circumstances with close observation. This research project at the Kensington Eye Institute will consist of two phases, namely a prospective, consecutive observational analysis and a prospective time-interrupted study. In the first phase, an observational analysis will be conducted in which consecutive cataract surgery patients will be surveyed with a validated questionnaire to assess their satisfaction. Inclusion criteria will include any cataract patient scheduled for surgery who is willing and able to participate in the study, with fully informed consent provided. Previously published literature has evaluated the use of a patient satisfaction questionnaire regarding preoperative fasting, which includes items on hunger, thirst, hoarseness of voice, difficulty breathing, pain, agitation, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, shivering and problems with concentration. A Research Assistant will complete the questionnaire with all patients preoperatively at KEI, as well as a baseline demographic checklist that will include the patient's age, gender, laterality, surgeon, length of time fasted for solids and clear liquids, as well as the type and amount of solids and liquids. Secondary endpoints will be collected postoperatively and will include the incidence of aspiration, nausea and vomiting, as well as the rate of cancellations of surgeries directly related to issues with fasting guidelines. The first phase of the study will be used to conduct an appropriate sample size calculation, which will ensure that our second phase is not underpowered for the primary efficacy endpoint. In the second phase, a time-interrupted prospective study will be established with the following two arms: (1) experimental arm: patients will be encouraged by the Research Assistant to drink clear fluids right up to the 2 hour limit as specified in the latest ASA and CAS guidelines, with no intervention applied for solids, and (2): control arm: standard of care without any encouragement to drink clear fluids up to the 2 hour limit. Patients will be assigned to groups based on month, so that the first month of study execution will enroll all patients into the experimental arm, the second month will enroll only into the control arm, and that subsequent months will alternate enrollment in a similar method. Given the design, the study will be in accordance with the latest ASA and CAS preoperative fasting guidelines, and will not involve any use of financial or other methods of coercion to incentivize patients that are randomly assigned to the experimental arm. The encouragement process will only involve the Research Assistant asking and encouraging the patient to drink a standardized quantity of clear fluid (up to 400mL of water, coffee, tea, apple or cranberry juice and maximum of 2 teaspoons of sugar) up to the ASA and CAS mandated guideline of 2 hours preoperatively, with the patient making the final determination of whether to comply. Following the encouragement process, a demographics and satisfaction questionnaire will be administered to each patient preoperatively, as well as another satisfaction questionnaire administered following the surgery. Baseline demographics, primary and secondary endpoints will remain consistent with the first phase.
This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of Rheosorbilact®, solution for infusion ("Yuria-Pharm" LLC), in comparison with Ringer's Lactate, solution for infusion, in a complex therapy of pneumonia. Half of participants will receive Rheosorbilact® in complex therapy, while the other half will receive Ringer's Lactate in complex therapy.
This project will determine whether an evidence-based, tested, pragmatic, system-level, comprehensive mouth care program provided to nursing home residents can reduce the incidence of pneumonia. It also will examine matters related to implementation, sustainability, and cost. If effective, the investigators expect this program to be widely adopted and sustained, to result in fewer episodes of pneumonia, and to reduce health-care costs.
AR-301 is being evaluated as an adjunctive treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in combination with standard of care (SOC) antibiotic therapy in patients with confirmed S. aureus infection.
This study will look for new biomarkers of infection and evaluate current biomarkers of infection in stroke patients. Patients with acute stroke will be monitored with daily blood samples for seven days and by clinical examination to detect infections for 10 days.