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This is a Phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study that will examine the efficacy of extended-release baclofen (Baclofen ER) for the treatment of cocaine dependence. The primary study outcome will be urines positive for benzoylecgonine (BE), a metabolite of cocaine, submitted during outpatient treatment (12-week) and follow-up (12-week). To examine brain mechanisms of relapse/recovery, participants will complete fMRI sessions before, during, and after treatment. Brain responses to specific probes of reward and inhibition will be used as biomarkers predicting drug use during and after the treatment.
The primary objective of this study is to collect pilot data on the efficacy of D-serine, relative to placebo, as a cocaine dependence treatment. Secondary objectives include evaluating D-serine, relative to placebo, on: 1. safety in treating cocaine-dependent adults and 2. tolerability.
Background: - Brain imaging studies, genetic research, and investigations of stress have provided more information about the role of dopamine in processing reward and punishment, and in vulnerability to substance dependence. Researchers are interested in learning more about how the brain responds to rewards, including drugs of abuse, and how these responses may involve genetic factors or previous stressful events. - Researchers intend to use the drug amphetamine to increase levels of dopamine in the brain and study the effects through two kinds of scanning: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Objectives: - To examine the relationship among dopamine function, brain activity, reward processing, genetic profile and exposure to stress in normal healthy adults. - To examine the variation in these factors between normal healthy adults and individuals with current cocaine-dependence. Eligibility: - Individuals 18 to 45 years of age who are either current cocaine users or healthy volunteers with no history of substance abuse or dependence. Design: - The study will consist of an initial evaluation session and six study visits, four of which will involve fMRI scans (3 hours each) and two of which will involve PET scans (8 to 9 hours each). - Cocaine-using participants will enter the inpatient clinical research ward at the National Institute on Drug Abuse Addiction Research Center the night before each scanning session and will be discharged the following day. Healthy volunteer subjects will not be required to stay overnight and will arrive as outpatients for the PET session. Participants will not be released until researchers have determined that participants are not experiencing significant effects of the drug. - Initial session (1): Participants will complete questionnaires about past reactions to stressful situations, and will be trained to do thinking tasks that will be performed in fMRI visits. The tasks will be practiced in a mockup of an MRI machine. - MRI sessions (2-5): Participants will receive either oral amphetamine or a placebo, and will perform thinking, short-term memory, and reward tasks during MRI scanning as directed by researchers. - PET sessions (6-8): Participants will receive either oral amphetamine or a placebo, and will provide blood samples during the PET scanning sessions. Participants will have short breaks during the PET scanning sessions.
The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of pemoline in treating cocaine and/or methamphetamine dependent adults with comorbid Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
The purpose of this study is to define temporal profile of brain activation (rCBF) using Xenon-SPECT and O 15-PET.
The purpose of this study is to follow patients in Phase I of an inpatient study in an eight week open label assessment of piracetam in an outpatient treatment program.