There are about 259 clinical studies being (or have been) conducted in Malawi. The country of the clinical trial is determined by the location of where the clinical research is being studied. Most studies are often held in multiple locations & countries.
Malawi is a low-income country in sub-Saharan Africa that has limited resources to address a significant burden of disease-including HIV/AIDS. Additionally, depression is a leading cause of disability in the country but largely remains undiagnosed and untreated. Lack of cost-effective, scalable solutions is a fundamental barrier to expanding depression treatment. Against this backdrop, one major success has been the scale-up of a network of more than 700 HIV clinics, with over half a million patients enrolled in ART. As a chronic care system with dedicated human resources and infrastructure, this presents a strategic platform for integrating depression care, and responds to a robust evidence base outlining the bi-directionality of depression and HIV outcomes. The investigators will evaluate a stepped model of depression care that combines group-based Problem Management Plus (group PM+) with antidepressant therapy (ADT) for 420 adults with moderate/severe depression in Neno District, Malawi, as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Rollout will follow a stepped-wedge cluster randomized design in which 14 health facilities are randomized to implement the model in five steps over a 15-month period. Primary outcomes (depression symptoms, functional impairment, and overall health) and secondary outcomes (e.g. HIV: viral load, ART adherence; diabetes: A1C levels, treatment adherence; hypertension: systolic blood pressure, treatment adherence) will be measured every three months through 12-month follow-up. The investigators will also evaluate the model's cost-effectiveness, quantified as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) compared to baseline chronic care services in the absence of the intervention model. This study will conduct a stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial to compare the effects of an evidence-based depression care model versus usual care on depression symptom remediation as well as physical health outcomes for chronic care conditions. The investigators will also look at the indirect effects of the intervention at the household level. The investigators' hypothesis is that the intervention will be effective at reducing depression symptoms, improving physical health, and improving household members' wellbeing, compare to treatment as usual. The investigators also hypothesize that the intervention will be highly cost-effective, meaning that the cost per QALY gained will be less than Malawi's median GDP per capita. If determined to be effective and cost-effective, this study will provide a model for integrating depression care into HIV clinics in additional districts of Malawi and other low-resource settings with high HIV prevalence.
A multicentre, international case-control study to develop a biobank of sera from 150 cases of serotype III GBS disease and associated clinical information from seven countries (Malawi, Uganda, UK, the Netherlands, Italy and France), with 3:1 (450) serotype matched healthy controls.
The intervention includes use of transport reimbursement for men who will undergo voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC), intensified health education by VMMC mobilizer, VMMC champions and women, use of a cell phone short messaging service (SMS) tracing to remind clients of their VMMC appointment and use of clinic escorts to accompany clients from the sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic to the VMMC clinic for circumcision or appointment scheduling (the RITE intervention). The investigators will assess the uptake of VMMC, and acceptability and feasibility of the RITE intervention among uncircumcised men attending a STI clinic. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the impact of using transport reimbursement, intensified health education, cell phone tracing and clinic escort in increasing the uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision at this clinic.
The purpose of this study will be to assess the feasibility and the preliminary efficacy of brief behavior change counseling on lifestyle among diabetic and hypertensive patients
This is a prospective observational cohort study of 2820 patients on first-line ART switching to a DTG-based first-line regimen, according to the standard of care. The study is conducted in Malawi and Zambia, in ART programs that participate in the IeDEA collaboration. Sequencing will be done on blood samples of patients with a viral load above 400 copies/mL to identify mutations.
The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and efficacy of first-line, risk-stratified Rituximab-based Multicentric Castleman Disease (MCD) treatment in Malawi in a single-arm, phase II clinical trial. This study also aims to compare the cost-effectiveness of first-line Rituximab treatment for MCD in Malawi to chemotherapy.
People living with HIV (PLHIV) who require admission to hospital in WHO Africa region have poor outcomes. TB is very common in this group, but can be difficult to diagnose. The CASTLE trial aims to determine whether systematic screening for tuberculosis using digital chest X-ray with computer-aided diagnosis (DCXR-CAD) plus urine lipoarabinomannan testing with Fujifilm SILVAMP TB LAM (FujiLAM) plus usual care can improve admission outcomes for hospitalised PLHIV, compared to usual care alone. Our study is a single centre, unblinded, cluster-randomised (by day of admission) trial of DCXR-CAD plus FujiLAM plus usual care vs. usual care alone for screening for TB in unselected adult PLHIV admitted to a district general hospital in Malawi. The primary outcome is the proportion of people starting TB treatment by the time of death or hospital discharge. The secondary outcomes are all-cause mortality at 56 days from enrolment, proportion of people starting TB treatment within 24 hours from enrolment, and proportion of people with undiagnosed TB. In the CASTLE study we collect a single sputum sample for M. tb culture from participants and undiagnosed TB specifically refers to a person who did not start TB treatment by the time of death or discharge from hospital and has a M. tb cultured from their sputum sample. Alongside the two trial arms, a third smaller diagnostic cohort arm (1 in 9 of admission days / trial clusters) will explore the range of underlying infectious pathology. The diagnostic cohort does not contribute to trial outcomes.
Children with severe malnutrition who are sick and admitted to hospitals have high mortality, usually because of infection. Malnourished children have more potentially harmful bacteria in their upper intestines than well-nourished children and this may contribute to inflammation in the gut and whole body. These bacteria may cross from the intestines to the bloodstream causing life-threatening infections. A related abnormality among malnourished children is reduction in the digestive enzymes made by the pancreas and the liver. Apart from helping with digestion of food, these enzymes are important in helping the body control bacteria in the upper intestines. It is therefore possible that treatment with digestive enzymes could help reduce the burden of harmful bacteria and thus lower inflammation and the risk of serious infection. One study conducted in Malawi has shown that children with severe malnutrition who were supplemented with pancreatic enzymes had a lower risk of dying. However, this was a small study and although promising, requires validation. No studies of supplementation with bile acids have been done among severely malnourished children. However, bile acids are commonly used to manage patients with liver function abnormalities, something that malnourished children suffer from as well. The investigators want to find out if supplementing these pancreatic enzymes and bile acids among ill children with severe acute malnutrition is safe and reduces the risk of death, deterioration or readmission to hospital.
In its 2017 revision of the global guidelines for HIV care and treatment, the World Health Organization (WHO) called for rapid or same-day initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for eligible patients testing positive for HIV. However, to date neither the WHO nor the Malawi Ministry of Health has provided detailed guidance on how to implement this recommendation. In sub-Saharan Africa, where most HIV patients are located, studies continue to document high losses of treatment-eligible patients from care before they receive their first dose of antiretroviral medications (ARVs). Among facility-level reasons for these losses are treatment initiation protocols that require multiple clinic visits and long waiting times before a patient who tests positive for HIV is dispensed an initial supply of medications. There is very little published evidence on the practical details of the process and the extent to which it varies by facility, setting, or country. Without a robust baseline evidence base, it is challenging to identify opportunities for making improvements. The SPRINT (Survey of Procedures and Resources for Initiating Treatment of HIV in Africa) study will begin to develop this evidence base. SPRINT will combine a facility-level description of the standard of care with a retrospective record review of patients who recently initiated ART at the study sites. Data will be collected from 12 health facilities in Malawi. The survey will elicit detailed information about current procedures through structured interviews with clinic staff at the selected health facilities. The record review for a retrospective cohort of patients eligible for ART will estimate actual numbers of clinic visits, services provided, and duration of the steps for treatment initiation from start to finish. SPRINT is expected to identify differences in approaches to treatment initiation and potential opportunities for improvement.
Background: Clinical guidelines and policies often fail to achieve high levels of delivery of intended clinical interventions. The difference in what investigators know works and what is actually delivered at the clinic-level to patients, is known as the "science-to-service gap." In the realm of tuberculosis (TB) prevention, this gap is reflected in <20% of TB preventive therapy (TPT)-eligible persons living with HIV (PLWH) being offered or initiated on isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in many settings. Recent innovation in TPT have brought new pharmacological options allowing for shorter courses, intermittent dosing, or both. A 12-dose once-weekly rifapentine and isoniazid (3HP) regimen has been demonstrated to be effective and well tolerated. This regimen has several potential advantages over IPT; however, if patients are never assessed for 3HP eligibility and 3HP is not prescribed, TPT packets will remain on pharmacy shelves and the potential health benefits will not reach those who need it. The overarching goal of this study is to identify a generalizable approach to overcome current barriers to delivery of TPT in order to achieve high levels of TPT delivery during routine care in public clinics. Investigators are proposing a choice architecture that makes prescribing TPT the "default" or standard option and that for TPT not to be prescribed will require a choice by a clinician to "opt-out" of TPT for a specific patient. Methods: Investigators will use a cluster randomized design with the larger IMPAACT4TB (I4TB) program to deliver 3HP to countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. A subset of countries and clinics within these I4TB countries will be included with each clinic the unit of randomization. Clinics within study countries will be randomized to one of two strategies: (1) standard implementation within the UNITAID project (clinic training on TPT along with posters and other standard medication material) and (2) choice architecture default TPT. Clinical process data will be used to assess the effectiveness of each strategy to determine the proportion of PLWH (1) screened for TB preventive therapy, (2) eligible for TPT, and (3) prescribed TPT. Significance: Identifying a pragmatic approach will lead the way for improving TPT prescribing across the study sites. It will furthermore contribute to implementation science at large in describing implementation strategies that may be applied to clinic-level implementation of other innovations.