There are about 112 clinical studies being (or have been) conducted in Cambodia. The country of the clinical trial is determined by the location of where the clinical research is being studied. Most studies are often held in multiple locations & countries.
Hypothesis: - Hypothesis 1 : Regarding the recentness of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) implementation with an uptake of 20% and according to the first consultative meeting, awareness and acceptability of PrEP seems to be low in key-populations of Cambodia - Hypothesis 2 : Individual, social and structural barriers and facilitating factors of PrEP implementation as perceived by health workers and community-based organizations would be similar to what was observed worldwide 4,8. - Hypothesis 3: Some subgroups of key-populations are difficult to reach in health facilities. Community organizations can play a critical role to provide PrEP information, initiation and counselling with the support of new technologies. - Hypothesis 4: Community organizations might lack financial, logistical and skill capacities to deliver PrEP in good conditions Main objective: • To qualitatively evaluate the knowledge, awareness, perception, experience and acceptability of PrEP among key populations (entertainment workers (EW), men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender women (TW)), and among healthcare and community workers in charge of key populations Secondary objectives: - To better understand the characteristics, needs and expectations of community-based organizations (CBOs), in order to define the optimal conditions for community-based PrEP implementation - To identify tools that could be useful to increase PrEP awareness and acceptability, especially new technologies (apps, websites) Methodology: Qualitative study Focus groups with key-populations, healthcare and community workers Semi-directive interviews with decision makers and policy makers Estimated enrolment: 10 participants per focus group, 8 focus groups, 80 participants in focus groups, 6 interviewed persons, 86 participants in total Study population: Men who have sex with men (MSM), entertainment workers (EW), transgender women (TGW), healthcare workers, community workers, decision and policy makers
The study is an extension to the study StrongMoxi NCT04056325 and entails modifications based on the outcome of NCT04056325 part A. The study is a phase 3, double-blinded and randomized clinical trial conducted in Cambodia. It aims at providing evidence on efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetic measures of 8 mg of moxidectin compared to 200 μg/kg ivermectin in adults infected with S. stercoralis. The efficacy of the treatment will be assessed by collecting three stool samples once per-treatment and once 21-28 days post-treatment. The stool samples will be analyzed by a quantitative duplicate Baermann assay.
After exposure, rabies can be prevented in almost 100% of cases by the administration of sufficient and timely post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). PEP is based on wound cleansing, antisepsis, administration of rabies vaccine as well as rabies immunoglobulin, if reviewed. However, anti-rabies PEP remains too often out of financial and / or geographic access, especially for poor and / or rural populations in endemic countries who remain the most exposed to the risk of contracting rabies. Two major studies planned in Cambodia between 2014 and 2018 - the RESIST 0/1 clinical - epidemiological study and the RESIST-2 study on the antibody response to the vaccine - provided the basis that allowed a change in international recommendations on PPE. Since April 2018, the new "IPC protocol" of three sessions of reduced double doses (0.1 mL x 2) administered intradermally (ID) over one week has replaced the already very effective "TRC protocol" of four sessions over one month which was the reference dose-sparing protocol for endemic countries until 2018. It remains to be determined whether the IPC protocol (3 sessions / 1 week) confers long-term immunity equivalent to that obtained after a TRC ID protocol (4 sessions / 1 month). This question is of importance to public health decision-makers and clinical teams in endemic countries who would hesitate to switch to the abbreviated IPC protocol.
The community-based ART delivery (CAD) model will build on the existing framework to engage community action, operationalized in the current Global Fund-supported project. Community Action Workers (CAW), who are assigned to ART centers and conduct outreach work, are well-suited to administer CAD scheme. KHANA and the project partners all have implementation roles in the Global Fund-supported project and established working channels with the CAW. While the previous experiences suggest the CAD model's effectiveness, implementing it in Cambodia requires adaptation to its specific local context. The proposed project will be implemented as an implementation study in nine ART sites and supported by a concrete evaluation plan. KHANA Center for Population Health Research will lead the research component. The project has three strategic areas and corresponding deliverables as follows: A. The development of a locally-fitted model: bringing ART closer to the people living with HIV B. The research: formulation, evaluation, documentation, and dissemination of the evidence, knowledge, and lessons learned C. The scale-up: advocacy for the SOP development to replicate/scale-up the CAD model The project will benefit a wide range of stakeholders. The approximately 2,000 ART clients enrolled in the nine selected clinics will face less cost, time, and discrimination, which will also benefit their families. The clinics will have a reduced workload on site, and they would be able to improve the quality of care for the visiting clients. The Cambodian health system will obtain a CAD model tailored to the country's local context and develop Standard Operating Procedures for the scheme with readily involved stakeholders. The scale-up of the model will benefit all other ART clinics and clients in the country. The 36-months project starting from June 1, 2019, will include six months of start-up and baseline assessments, 24-month intervention, and six-month evaluation.
DATURA trial is a phase III, multicenter, two-arm, open-label, randomized superiority trial to compare the efficacy and the safety of an intensified tuberculosis (TB) regimen versus standard TB treatment in HIV-infected adults and adolescents hospitalized for TB with CD4 ≤ 100 cells/μL over 48 weeks: - Intensified TB treatment regimen: increased doses of rifampicin and isoniazid together with standard-dose of pyrazinamide and ethambutol for 8 weeks in addition to prednisone for 6 weeks and albendazole for 3 days - WHO standard TB treatment regimen. The continuation phase of TB treatment will be identical in the two arms: 4 months of rifampicin and isoniazid at standard doses.
The study will be an open-labelled randomized clinical trial to determine therapeutic efficacy. Note that this will not be an Investigational New Drug application, as only WHO-approved drugs will be used at dosage and for conditions approved. Eligible patients willing to participate will first be tested prior to enrolment for their G6PD status by the gold standard spectrophotometric analysis. The investigators will exclude from the study any G6PD deficient (or intermediate females) patient. Treatment allocation will be randomized between i) 7 days of artesunate (2 mg/kg/day for 7 days) alone (Arm1), ii) same artesunate regimen + 0.25 mg/kg/day 14 days of primaquine (Arm2) and iii) same artesunate regimen + 0.5 mg/kg/day 14 days of primaquine (Arm3). All patients will be relocated to a no-transmission city (Chbar Mon) to make sure they are not reinfected during the follow-up. Follow-up will be performed every 24-48h for 90 days. At the end of the follow-up period, all patients that did not receive primaquine (arm1) will be treated according to national guidelines (14 days at 0.25mg/kg/day). Patients will additionally be followed monthly for three months after the end of the relocation.
Tafenoquine was recently approved by regulatory authorities in the USA and Australia. Tafenoquine is an alternative radical curative treatment to primaquine acting against the dormant liver stage of Plasmodium vivax (the hypnozoite). Tafenoquine (an 8-aminoquinoline) has the substantial advantage of single dosing as compared to a 14-day course of primaquine to achieve radical cure. The recommended tafenoquine dose is 300 mg, which was shown to be significantly worse in radical curative efficacy to a total primaquine dose of 3.5 mg/kg in Southeast Asia. The cure rate of tafenoquine 300 mg in Southeast Asian study sites was only 74%. The comparator 3.5 mg/kg total primaquine dose is the standard and most commonly used dose globally, but in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific, higher doses of primaquine are needed for radical cure. This study aims to determine the optimal dose of tafenoquine in Southeast Asia.
The central hypothesis of this study is that a neonatal healthcare programme that has a significant impact on neonatal mortality and which spans the healthcare journey from village to referral hospital can be developed and implemented in a low-resource rural setting. This study is a five-year stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial, covering a rural and isolated province in North-Eastern Cambodia. The intervention of this study is the Saving Babies' Lives programme, which is a comprehensive, contextual and iterative neonatal healthcare package. The Saving Babies' Lives programme comprises a training programme for primary care facilities, and participatory action research with community health workers (know in Cambodia as village health support group volunteers). The control is no intervention; standard government service continues. Qualitative and quantitative data collection supports improvements in the iterative programme, and evaluation of the study, with the intention of creating a scalable blueprint.
Background: In early 2020, many people thought Cambodia would have a serious COVID-19 outbreak due to the high number of Chinese travelers going to Cambodia. But as of June 14, 2020, only 128 cases of COVID-19 have been identified in the country. Many of these cases have been from people who had traveled in Europe. Researchers want to do antibody tests on blood from a sampling of people in Phnom Penh to learn the infection risks for people in the greater Phnom Penh area. Objective: To estimate the level of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the blood of people living in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Eligibility: Healthy males and females age 18-65 living in Phnom Penh since January 2020. Design: A mobile unit will travel to schools, shopping areas, parks, and pagodas around Phnom Penh. Participants will be screened with questions about their age and where they live. They will have blood taken via fingerstick. About 80 uL of blood will be taken. It will be tested for SARS-CoV-2. This visit will take about 30 minutes. If the test result is positive, participants will be contacted by phone. They will be asked to have a second blood draw. This time, 20 mL of blood will be taken. They can have this visit at their home or in a clinic. This visit will take about 30 minutes. If a participant has an adverse event, the mobile units and at-home units will have the tools needed to aid the participant. If needed, the participant will be sent to a nearby clinic.
Safe Food Fair Food for Cambodia (SFFF) is a Feed the Future Innovation Lab project funded by USAID. This 3-year project aims to improve food safety of animal source food (ASF) in Cambodia. SFFF was awarded to the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), National Animal Health and Production Research Institute (NAHPRI) and Livestock Development for Community Livelihood Organization (LDC) and in collaboration with Cambodian Ministry of Health CDC and NIPH. Based on the findings and consultations with food safety stakeholders in Cambodia, we have developed a set of interventions to improve hygienic practice and pork safety at the traditional markets in Cambodia. Those interventions will be introduced and tested at retail in six selected provinces using Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT). To ensure compliance of targeted actors (e.g. retailers), participatory methods (e.g. FGD) were used to validate intervention packages. There are two steps of intervention which contain of part 1) Retailer formative research for SFFF Cambodia and 2) Interventions for Good Hygiene Practices for Safer Pork at Traditional Markets. Part 1. Retailer formative research for SFFF Cambodia: We will implement an intervention package to this trial group and collect biological sampling to determine the hygienic status before and after the intervention. The intervention packages will be developed for SFFF Cambodia in consultation with partners and based on findings of SFFF Cambodia project. Part 2. Intervention for Good Hygiene Practices for Safer Pork at Traditional Markets: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) intervention will be conducted in 12 markets in 6 provinces. Those provinces were selected based on the prevalence of Salmonella in a market survey study, namely Kampot, Kampong Cham, Kampong Speu, Takeo, Siem Reap, and Phnom Penh. Another 12 markets, in the same provinces, will be used as a control group. In total 24 traditional wet markets will be included in the sampling, by selecting the 4 largest traditional markets in the six provinces with at least 15 pork shops. At each market, 15 pork shops were selected for sampling. The intervention package includes 5 keys actions (Handbook) and provision of equipment incentive (e.g. inox tray, easy-clean surface material), and training on good hygiene practices.