There are about 40 clinical studies being (or have been) conducted in Benin. The country of the clinical trial is determined by the location of where the clinical research is being studied. Most studies are often held in multiple locations & countries.
The objective of the study is to compare outcomes from three different strategies for the management of household (HH) contacts of individuals with newly diagnosed microbiologically confirmed active pulmonary TB. The study is a cluster randomized trial with three arms of equal size. The first eligible member of the HH who provides signed informed consent to participate will be randomized to one of the three strategies. The three different study arms are as follows: 1. Standard care (control arm): Participants will receive symptom screening and tuberculin skin testing (TST). If symptom screen positive and/or TST positive, they undergo chest x-rays (CXR). If CXR abnormal, they undergo microbiological investigation. If CXR normal or if microbiological investigation negative, TST positive receive latent TB infection (LTBI) treatment. If microbiological investigation is positive, they will be offered treatment for active TB. 2. GeneXpert (GX): Participants follow an algorithm similar to the standard care, however participants with positive symptom screen and/or positive TST will receive GX (i.e., GX replaces CXR in standard care algorithm). GX positive are considered to have active TB. TST positive and GX negative receive LTBI treatment. If an individual is not able to provide sputum, they will undergo a CXR. 3. CXR for all/NoTST: Participants will receive symptom screening and CXR. No TST will be performed. If CXR abnormal or symptom positive, they undergo microbiological investigation. If the CXR is normal, and/or microbiological investigations negative - they receive LTBI treatment as per national guidelines. If microbiological investigation is positive they will be offered treatment for active TB. The study population includes HIV uninfected persons aged 5-50 years who are HH contacts of individuals with newly diagnosed microbiologically confirmed active pulmonary TB. The planned number of household contacts to recruit is about 1434 in total, or about 455 for each of the three arms. The study will take place in Benin and Brazil. The primary study outcome is, of those eligible for LTBI therapy, the proportion starting therapy within 3 months of the index TB patient starting active TB treatment. Secondary outcomes measured in each study arm include societal costs, prevalence of microbiologically confirmed and clinically diagnosed active TB, prevalence of TB infection, Incidence of adverse events, proportion who complete LTBI therapy, sensitivity and specificity of Chest Xray reading in each study side, and prevalence of active TB diagnosed using CXR in participants who cannot produce a sputum sample. Details of the statistical analysis plan for each primary and secondary outcome are provided below. Study participants will be recruited over 18 months. Participants will be followed until LTBI treatment is completed.
Primary Objective: To show the contribution of artefenomel (OZ439) to the clinical and parasiticidal effect of OZ439/Ferroquine (FQ) combination by analyzing exposure-response of OZ439 measured by Day 28 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-corrected adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) for the effect and the area under the curve (AUC) of OZ439 as pharmacokinetic (PK) predictor. Secondary Objectives: - To evaluate the exposure-response of OZ439 combined with FQ on crude Day 28 ACPR. - To evaluate the dose response of OZ439 combined with FQ on PCR-corrected and crude Day 28 ACPR. - To evaluate the dose-response of OZ439 combined with FQ on selected secondary endpoints. - To evaluate the safety and tolerability of different dosages of OZ439 in combination with FQ and FQ alone. - To characterize the PK of OZ439 in plasma, and of FQ and its active metabolite SSR97213 in blood.
Recent advances in molecular diagnostics of tuberculosis, especially the GeneXpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/Rifampicin test have reduced the time to diagnose Rifampicin Resistant Tuberculosis (RR-TB) but only rifampicin resistance is diagnosed, leading to presumptive diagnosis of resistance to isoniazid and maybe other drugs. Thus in low and middle income countries, most drug sensitivity testing relies on phenotypic drug resistance testing, which takes up to 4 months. In addition, currently, culture on monthly sputum samples is recommended by the World Health Organization for follow-up of Rifampicin Resistant Tuberculosis patients under treatment. Unfortunately, culture is often not locally available and samples need to be transported from field to culture laboratories. The associated transport delays lead to high rates of contamination and false negative culture, particularly in laboratories in low resource settings. Many gaps for the diagnosis and management of RR-TB patients still need to be addressed and the DIAMA project (DIAgnostics for Multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Africa) study aims to address some of them.
FEVRIER study is an observatory of hospitalizations in cardiology units in sub-Saharan Africa.
STUDY OBJECTIVE To confirm the incidence of in-hospital postoperative complications in adult surgical patients in Africa. STUDY DESIGN Seven day, African national multi-centre prospective observational cohort study of adult (≥18 years) patients undergoing surgery. Patients will be followed up for a maximum of 30 days. We will follow the original International Surgical Outcomes Study (ISOS) study design. The primary outcome is in-hospital postoperative complications in adult surgical patients in Africa. Secondary outcomes include in-hospital mortality and the relationship between postoperative complications and postoperative mortality. The intention is to present a representative sample of surgical outcomes across all African countries. This study will run between February and March 2016.
Over 1.5 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STH). Global STH guidelines recommend MDA (mass drug administration) of albendazole or mebendazole to targeted populations, including pre-school age children and school-age children. However mathematical models suggests that current MDA strategies are not sufficient for interrupting disease transmission in most areas. Meanwhile many lymphatic filariasis (LF) programs have successfully treated entire populations with albendazole (in combination with ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine) and are transitioning to a state of post-MDA surveillance. This project will conduct a series of community-based cluster randomized trials in India, Malawi, and Benin to determine if maintaining three years of MDA with albendazole to entire communities following the cessation of LF programs can interrupt STH transmission in focal geographic areas. Additionally, this study aims to compare the efficacy of community-wide MDA versus targeted MDA of children in interrupting the transmission of STH. Nested implementation science research will be used to optimize the intervention, identify contextual factors influencing trial efficacy, and evaluate the feasibility of sustaining and scaling community-wide MDA for STH. These data will provide evidence necessary to inform future guidelines, policies, and operational plans as country partners engage in intensified approaches to eliminate these disabling diseases.
Conventional indirect indicators of iron status, using serum and red blood cell biomarkers, are confounded by inflammation from common infections in sub-Saharan Africa, a region with a high prevalence of iron deficiency, making the assessment of iron balance and efficiency of iron intervention difficult. A potential reference method to quantify iron absorption and requirements using isotope dilution measurements in women living in areas with high burden of infection should be developed and validated within this project. The new method will allow accurate measurement of long term oral iron absorption and the estimation of iron requirements, potentially providing fundamental guidance for supplementation and fortification programs in sub-Saharan Africa. In a case series with four months' preventative iron supplementation intervention imbedded between a four months' control period prior intervention and a four months' control period after intervention, we will follow a group of 63 women. During the intervention period, the women will receive 50 mg Fe as ferrous sulfate tablets every day for 120 d. In total, the women will give 9 blood samples (day 1, 60 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 300 and 360) for the de-termination of the isotopic composition and iron status biomarkers and 5 stool samples (day 1, 120, 180, 240 and 360) for the detection of soil transmitted helminths and gut inflammation. This design will allow the measurement of the isotopic iron dilution to assess the total oral iron absorption during the intervention period in comparison with the control periods without the administration of additional iron isotopes.
The study is a pragmatic cluster randomized trial that is being conducted in 5 countries, with sites in 4 cities in Canada, Benin, Ghana, Indonesia and Vietnam. The unit of randomization is the health facility (24 health facilities randomized). The trial tests a complex intervention-a two phase programmatic public health package which includes a standardized public health evaluation and analysis, to identify problems and barriers limiting Latent Tuberculosis Infection diagnosis and treatment among close contacts of active Tuberculosis cases. This will be followed by implementation of appropriate solutions and strengthening of the LTBI clinical program. The primary objective will be to estimate the increase the number of household contacts initiating LTBI treatment per newly diagnosed index patient, within 3 months of diagnosis of the index patient. A secondary objective is to evaluate the cost effectiveness of this two phase intervention. If successful, this approach can be expanded throughout these countries. After initial preparations, including administrative and ethical review, all participating sites will be randomized to intervention or control. Immediately after this, Phase 1 will begin in intervention sites with the standardized public health evaluation to identify barriers to LTBI diagnosis and treatment initiation and the selection of solutions to be used in Phase 2. To ensure standardization of data gathering research staff will use (i) current indicators of the Latent Tuberculosis Infection cascade of care in intervention facilities (number of contacts per index case registered, investigated, started on treatment and completing treatment) and (ii) interviewer administered questionnaires for patients with active pulmonary Tuberculosis, adult and child household contacts and clinic staff. These questionnaires will assess latent Tuberculosis-related knowledge, attitudes and beliefs from the perspective of these different participants. Results from intervention sites in Phase 1 will be analyzed, and used by the investigators, together with local public health officials, to decide on appropriate corrective solutions in each sites. Contact Investigation registries will also be developed with research staff from sites. In Phase 2, solutions for problems identified will be selected and implemented at the intervention sites, Contact Investigation registries will be implemented and clinical training will be provided to strengthen LTBI health care worker knowledge and clinical programs. Study outcomes and costs will be measured at all intervention and control sites throughout Phase 1 & 2. The main study will run for 18 months. Upon completion of the main study, a 1 year cross over study will be conducted where control sites will receive a streamlined version of the intervention and original intervention sites will be used to evaluate the sustainability of the intervention. Results will be disseminated within each country through existing links with National Tuberculosis Programs, and through international organizations such as the World Health Organization.
Tuberculosis is a public health problem caused by a microbe. This microbe may differ from one patient to another. The purpose of this study is to know to which extent, each of these various microbes is involved in tuberculosis disease in Benin. This study will also find out whether the type that affects a patient, depends on patient characteristics and whether the difference affects the outcome of the treatment. Finally the study will also help to find out whether diagnostic tests are reliable for all types of the microbe. This information will be used after the study to inform decision making in order to improve tuberculosis control.
Despite having developed robust acquired immunity against complications of malaria, women can return to a susceptible state during their first pregnancies and contribute significantly to the burden of severe malaria in highly endemic areas. Naturally acquired protection against placental malaria correlates with the presence of high concentration of immunoglobulin G molecules (IgGs) against VAR2CSA, a parasite protein of the var gene family that is essential for the binding of infected erythrocytes to CSA in the placenta. To induce high concentrations of specific IgGs, subjects will receive escalating doses of PAMVAC vaccine antigen adjuvanted with Alhydrogel, Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant-Stable Emulsion (GLA-SE) or Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant-Liposome-QS-21 Formulation (GLA-LSQ). Three injections with the same dosage and adjuvant will be done, each 28 days apart (Day 0, 28 and 56). Control subjects will receive physiological saline instead of the vaccine and dose escalation will be staggered to ensure safety during the trial.