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Type D personality is characterized by negative affectivity and social inhibition and is assessed with the DS-14 questionnaire. This type of personality was initially described in patients with coronary heart disease and associated with poor prognosis and diminished quality of life. Whereas the prevalence of type D personality in patients with coronary heart disease is between 27% and 31%, the prevalence in the general population is between 13% and 24%. The prevalence of type D personality in OSA (Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome) was only investigated in patients with a moderate or severe OSA (Apnea-hypopnea index > 15/hour) already on standard clinical treatment with CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure). The overall prevalence of type D personality in OSA is still unknown. Furthermore, OSA is frequently associated with cardiovascular disease. No studies were performed on the impact of type D personality and cardiovascular complications in OSA. Until now, only a few studies were performed to investigate type D personality in OSA patients treated with CPAP therapy. One retrospective study showed that OSA patients with type D personality experienced more side effects of CPAP treatment and were less compliant to therapy. In a more recent prospective study, the influence of type D personality on CPAP compliance could not be confirmed. No information is available about the frequency of visits and the time spent by these patients to remediate CPAP side effects. There is also no data about the discontinuation rate of CPAP treatment in this population of patients. It is possible that a specific follow up of those patients is needed to enhance CPAP compliance. After a while, CPAP therapy can have an influence on mood and behavior. Therefore, it is possible that CPAP therapy can alter the patient's answers to the DS-14 questionnaire. This could explain the different outcome of the retrospective and prospective studies mentioned above. No studies were performed to test the reliability and validate the DS-14 questionnaire in OSA patients. Consequently, the aim of the present study is to evaluate more extensively the importance of type D personality traits in OSA patients.
Stress affects the health and is prevalent among medicine and pharmacy students. A number of factors such as busy schedules, course load and lack of recreational time during semesters as well as exams, have been reported to be associated with stress. Study reports that the use of aroma oils especially those with relaxant properties can alleviate the level of stress. This study aims to investigate the effects of aroma oils in stress during exams in pharmacy students.
Coordinated project whose objectives are: a) to test the effectiveness of a promotion of physical activity intervention (MOVI-KIDS) on preventing obesity; and b) to improve the academic performance in both children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)