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Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of immunosuppressive drugs is used to improve the immunosuppressive effect while minimizing the toxicity related to exposition to high serum levels. Although TDM is widely used in clinical practice, a significant number of kidney transplant recipients have acute allograft rejection in the first year after transplantation. To improve the use of immunosuppressive drugs, new approaches of TDM have been developed. Monitoring drug concentrations at lymphocytes of peripheral blood is considering promising because it indicates the availability of the drug directly in the target sites of immunosuppression. The present study intends to establish the concentration profile of tacrolimus in the peripheral blood in parallel with the concentration profile inside T and B lymphocytes of peripheral blood of kidney transplant recipients, and correlates them with the expected pharmacological effects. The pharmacological effects of tacrolimus in calcineurin dependent and calcineurin independent (mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) dependent) activation pathways will be assessed by measuring activated nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and p38, respectively, by flow cytometry. The expression of interleukin (IL) - 2 and IL-10 by T and B lymphocytes, respectively, will be also used to monitoring the pharmacodynamic effects of tacrolimus.
This study will test whether selected allogeneic bone marrow derived MSCs are safe by assessing the composite end point Biopsy Proven Acute Rejection (BPAR)/ graft loss at 12 months.
To search for suitable pharmacodynamic biomarkers, i.e., with high specificity for calcineurin inhibition and most affected by inter-individual variability, our works aimed at exploring the pharmacodynamics of CNI, the strength and variability of signal translation along the calcineurin pathway, as well as the steps where sources of internal (genetic) or external variability are the most influential. In order to achieve this, we assessed simultaneously NFAT1 translocation into the nucleus of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) (NFTA1 being the main NAFT isoform in resting and activated lymphocytes), the intracellular expression of IL-2 in CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets and the membrane expression of CD25 (IL-2Rα), a surface marker of T cells activation, in T cells at large. A non-interventional clinical trial was set up in healthy volunteers, patients registered on a liver transplantation waiting list (WLP) and liver transplant recipients (LTR). A different question was addressed in each group: The healthy volunteer study (n=35): explored TAC PD along the calcineurin pathway by exposing PBMC ex-vivo; modelled signal translation along this cascade; examined the interindividual variability of TAC PD parameters; and investigated the sources of the variability observed and their contribution at each step of the calcineurin pathway. Furthermore, it allowed us to evaluate the analytical variability of our techniques as well as the intra-individual variability of TAC PD parameters. WLP (n=19) were enrolled to confirm in patients with liver diseases the results obtained in healthy volunteers, as well as to test the potential influence of their initial disease on the ex-vivo pharmacodynamics of TAC. The aims of the transversal study of LTR on CNI (n=80) were to further explore the interindividual variability in the PD of CNI in realistic clinical conditions, i.e. in situations of residual PD activities under tacrolimus or cyclosporine exposure, and the potential pharmacogenetic (PG) sources of such variability. The (still small) group of liver transplant patients (n=9) enrolled immediately before transplantation and followed-up with serial monitoring along the first year post-transplantation was intended to explore the relationships between CNI PD and clinical responses.
In 2009, the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 accounted for worldwide recommendations about vaccination. There is no data concerning the immunogenicity nor the security of the adjuvanted-A/H1N1 vaccine in renal disease patients. The aim of this study is to observe the effects of this vaccine on transplanted and hemodialyzed patients.
Many but not all studies have shown improvement in morbidity and mortality with intensive glycemic management postoperatively. In this study, the investigators propose to determine whether improved glycemic control using intensive insulin treatment immediately postoperatively will improve outcomes in patients undergoing liver transplant using a prospective, controlled, randomized, parallel-group study design targeting two different glucose levels, 140 and 180 mg/dL.
This open-label clinical trial will evaluate the safety and efficacy of Alemtuzumab (Campath, Bayer Corp., Pittsburgh) in children (0-17) and adults (18-25) receiving intestinal transplant. Seventy-five subjects receiving primary or repeat intestine transplantation will be enrolled. Primary endpoints include the incidence and severity of biopsy-proven acute cellular rejection, the incidence of freedom from steroids at 5 years, and the incidence of subjects with steroid-free Tacrolimus at whole blood concentrations < 10 ng/ml. Secondary endpoints include a) incidence and severity of opportunistic infections (CMV and EBV), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), and chronic rejection b) use of non-immunosuppressive co-medications, c) time to repopulation of all lymphocyte subsets, d) longitudinal characterization of donor-specific alloreactivity in mixed lymphocyte responses (MLR), to identify the time at which it decreases to a level less than third-party-specific alloreactivity e) longitudinal expression (mRNA) of genes, to identify rejection- and non-rejection-specific genes and f) characterization of whole genome mutations, which show differences in parent-to-child transmission between rejectors and non-rejectors. This will identify rejection- and non-rejection-specific genes bearing genetic variants, which might impact on gene function, and complement candidate gene identification efforts based on SNP transmission.
This open-label clinical trial will evaluate the pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics and early efficacy and safety of steroid-free Tacrolimus (TAC) monotherapy and its minimization after induction with rabbit, anti-human thymocyte globulin (rATG, Genzyme, Cambridge, MA) in children and adults with pediatric liver transplantation. Eighty subjects (0-21 years) receiving liver transplantation will be enrolled. Incidence and severity of biopsy-proven acute cellular rejection (ACR) is a primary endpoint as well as time to Tacrolimus whole blood concentrations <8 ng/ml The expected incidence of ACR is 50% and is derived from a non-consecutive subject population (n=40) who received an identical regimen in IND 64555. This incidence is acceptable because the long term sequel of rejection reported with other allografts have not been observed in liver grafts during IND 64555. These risks are further negated by the unique regenerative capacity of the liver allograft. An OBSERVATIONAL arm is being included in this trial. Because the numbers of pediatric liver transplants (LTx) are small in any single center setting, no information is known about relative outcomes on a conventional protocol, in children receiving conventional protocol of steroids+Tacrolimus. The PURPOSE of this additional recruitment is OBSERVATIONAL, only. Therefore, these subjects will NOT be randomized. Rather, by studying all types of patients, the investigators hope to utilize maximally, all available subjects, to understand the relative place of monotherapeutic induction. In turn, this will be the basis for a follow-up comparative, randomized trial.
Medication-related non-adherence increases the risk of rejections and associated graft loss after solid organ transplantation. A randomized controlled intervention will use adherence enhancing strategies out of a larger sample of 300 heart transplant recipients. Non-Adherence will be assessed by patients' self-report and based on immunosuppression level. All non-adherent patients will be randomly designed to either intervention or control group. Multi-module interventions include patient education, electronic medication event monitoring, and a combined behavior and symptom management. Longitudinal follow-up is envisioned after initial intervention.
Prospective cohort, mono-center study included electronic data of home spirometry (HS, lung function) of lung transplant recipients
In patients with acute rejection after lung transplantation the peptide profile in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) and urine should be compared in order to identify a paradigm that allows an non-invasive rejection therapy.