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There is evidence of the association of brain death and inflammation, affecting outcomes of transplanted organs, but in a way not fully understood. Observational studies suggest that the use of target-guided therapies has a beneficial effect in reducing the rate of donor loss due to cardiac arrest and increasing the rate of donor-picked organs, which will be tested through the randomized clinical trial. However, no study so far has directly tested the effect of drugs with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties administered to the donor in encephalic death in reducing inflammation of organs to be transplanted. This study aims to evaluate the use of liraglutide in patients with brain death in relation to their ability to attenuate the inflammation induced by encephalic death by means of a randomized clinical trial.
Fetal growth restriction during pregnancy represents one of the biggest risk factors for stillbirth (Gardosi et al, 2013), with 'about one in three term, normally formed antepartum stillbirths are related to abnormalities of fetal growth' (MBRRACE, 2015). Therefore, antenatal detection of growth restricted babies is vital in order to be able to monitor and decide the appropriate delivery timing. However, antenatal detection of SGA babies has been poor, varying greatly across trusts in England in those that calculate their rates (NHS England, 2016). Most trusts do not calculate their detection rates and rates are therefore unknown. It is estimated that routine NHS care detects only 1 in 4 growth restricted babies (Smith, 2015). Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, in partnership with the Oxford Academic Health Science Network (AHSN) has introduced a clinical care pathway (the Oxford Growth Restriction Pathway (OxGRIP)) designed to increase the rates of detection of these at risk babies. The pathway is intended to increase the identification of babies who are at risk of stillbirth, in order to try to prevent this outcome, whilst making best usage of resources, and restricting inequitable practice and unnecessary obstetric intervention. It has been developed with reference to a body of research, however, the individual parts of care provided have not been put together in a pathway in this manner before. Therefore it is important to examine whether the pathway meets its goals of improving outcomes for babies in a 'real world' setting. The principles of the pathway are 1. A universal routine scan at 36 weeks gestation. 2. Additional growth scans at 28 and 32 weeks gestation based on a simplified assessment of risk factors and universal uterine artery Doppler at 20 weeks gestation. 3. Assessment of further parameters other than estimated fetal weight associated with adverse perinatal outcome (eg growth velocity, umbilical artery Doppler and CPR). The clinical data routinely collected as a result of the introduction of the pathway offers a valuable and unique resource in identifying and analysing in the effects of the pathway on its intended outcomes and also in investigating and analysing other maternal, fetal and neonatal complications and outcomes, establishing normal / reference ranges for ultrasound values.
All early breast cancer patients are offered adjuvant breast radiation therapy (RT) after breast conserving surgery for an early breast cancer. Breast cancer is heterogeneous, and selected patients have a very low gain from RT, whilst they still have risk of acute and late side effects from RT. This trial will try identify selection criteria for low risk breast cancer patients who can safely omit adjuvant RT without unacceptable high risk of local failure.
The overall aim of the project is to develop a national registry to accurately measure the burden of Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) among the general Canadian population. This project will create a common platform to link existing sources of information (EMS, Coroner and Administrative Databases) in order to fully understand the causes and outcomes of SCA. This comprehensive, unique registry will inform the progress and effectiveness of all CANet SCA programs aimed at reducing SCA. Understanding the antecedents, causes and outcomes of SCA will allow for new initiatives/investigations to reduce SCA, by using targeted interventions both effectively and efficiently.
Studies have shown that the risk of developing heart arrhythmias, is increased in patients receiving medication for Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. The QT-interval on a electrocardiogram (ECG) is often used to assess the patients risk of developing heart arrhythmias. The QT-interval defines the hearts electrical resting period and a long interval is linked to an increased risk of developing heart arrhythmias. In this project the investigators wish to examine possible side-effects in patients receiving medication for ADHD and depression and their dynamic QT-interval changes, by analysing the ECG changes that occur during "Brisk Standing".
This study evaluates the feasibility and safety of a management approach that incorporates VT-ablation and S-ICD implantation in secondary prevention patients. This is a single arm prospective study with 30 patients eligible for implantation of an ICD for the secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death.
The prevalence of valvular heart disease is on the rise along with the aging society and the generalization of echocardiography. Furthermore, the rheumatic valvular heart disease is much more prevalent in Asia than in Western countries, and the frequency of valve disease is higher in Asia. The effect of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in ischemic cardiomyopathy is well established and has become a standard of care. However, there is limited research on the effect of ICD implantation for primary prevention in patients with heart failure due to valvular heart disease. In a small study, the incidence of fatal cardiac arrhythmia was lower in patients with valvular cardiomyopathy (5%) who received ICD implantation for primary prevention than in those with ischemic cardiomyopathy. But there is also a report that the appropriate ICD treatment is not different from that of ischemic heart disease in valvular heart disease patients. Therefore, it is necessary to study the primary prevention effect of ICD on valvular cardiomyopathy in a larger number of patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ICD on the prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with heart failure due to valvular heart disease through prospective, multicenter, and observational studies.
The PROTECT-ICD trial is a physician-led, multi-centre randomised controlled trial targeting prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients who have poor cardiac function following a myocardial infarct (MI). The trial aims to assess the role of electrophysiology study (EPS) in guiding implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation, in patients early following MI (first 40 days). The secondary aim is to assess the utility of cardiac MRI (CMR) in analysing cardiac function and viability as well as predicting inducible and spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmia when performed early post MI. Following a MI patients are at high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). The risk is highest in the first 40 days; however, current guidelines exclude patients from receiving an ICD during this time. This limitation is based largely on a single study, The Defibrillator in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (DINAMIT), which failed to demonstrate a benefit of early ICD implantation. However, this study was underpowered and used non-invasive tests to identify patients at high risk. EPS identifies patients with the substrate for re-entrant tachyarrhythmia, and has been found in multiple studies to predict patients at risk of SCD. Contrast-enhanced CMR is a non-invasive test without radiation exposure which can be used to assess left ventricular function. In addition, it provides information on myocardial viability, scar size and tissue heterogeneity. It has an emerging role as a predictor of mortality and spontaneous ventricular arrhythmia in patients with a previous MI. A total of 1,058 patients who are at high risk of SCD based on poor cardiac function (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤40%) following a ST-elevation or non-STE myocardial infarct will be enrolled in the trial. Patients will be randomised 1:1 to either the intervention or control arm. In the intervention arm all patients undergo early EPS. Patients with a positive study (inducible ventricular tachycardia cycle length ≥200ms) receive an ICD, while patients with a negative study (inducible ventricular fibrillation or no inducible VT) are discharged without an ICD, regardless of the LVEF. In the control arm patients are treated according to standard local practice. This involves early discharge and repeat assessment of cardiac function after 40 days or after 90 days following revascularisation (PCI or CABG). ICD implantation after 40 days according to current guidelines (LVEF≤30%, or ≤35% with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II/III symptoms) could be considered, if part of local standard practice, however the ICD is not funded by the trial. A proportion of trial patients from both the intervention and control arms at >48 hours following MI will undergo CMR to enable correlation with (1) inducible VT at EPS and (2) SCD and non-fatal arrhythmia on follow up. It will be used to simultaneously assess left ventricular function, ventricular strain, myocardial infarction size, and peri-infarction injury. The size of the infarct core, infarct gray zone (as a measure of tissue heterogeneity) and total infarct size will be quantified for each patient. All patients will be followed for 2 years with a combined primary endpoint of non-fatal arrhythmia and SCD. Non-fatal arrhythmia includes resuscitated cardiac arrest, sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) in participants without an ICD. Secondary endpoints will include all-cause mortality, non-sudden cardiovascular death, non-fatal repeat MI, heart failure and inappropriate ICD denial. Secondary endpoints for CMR correlation will include (1) the presence or absence of inducible VT at EP study, and (2) combined endpoint of appropriate ICD activation or SCD at follow up. It is anticipated that the intervention arm will reduce the primary endpoint as a result of prevention of a) early sudden cardiac deaths/cardiac arrest, and b) sudden cardiac death/cardiac arrest in patients with a LVEF of 31-40%. It is expected that the 2-year primary endpoint rate will be reduced from 6.7% in the control arm to 2.8% in the intervention arm with a relative risk reduction (RRR) of 68%. A two-group chi-squared test with a 0.05 two-sided significance level will have 80% power to detect the difference between a Group 1 proportion of 0.028 experiencing the primary endpoint and a Group 2 proportion of 0.067 experiencing the primary endpoint when the sample size in each group is 470. Assuming 1% crossover and 10% loss to follow up the required sample size is 1,058 (n=529 patients per arm). To test the hypothesis that tissue heterogeneity at CMR predicts both inducible and spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias will require a sample size of 400 patients to undergo CMR. It is anticipated that the use of EPS will select a group of patients who will benefit from an ICD soon after a MI. This has the potential to change clinical guidelines and save a large number of lives.
Objective: The Nanshan Elderly Cohort Study (NECS) aims to investigate the nutritional, as well as other environmental and genetic factors of chronic diseases, such as cardio-metabolic diseases. Study design: NECS is a community-based prospective cohort study. Participants: About 10000-20000 apparently healthy residents, living in Nanshan， Shenzhen (South China) for >5 years, aged ≥ 65 years, will be recruited between 2018 and 2019. Visits and Data Collection: Participants will be followed up approximately every 3 years by invited to the Community Healthcare Service Centre. At each survey, face-to-face interviews, anthropometric measurements, ultrasonography examination, electrocardiogram test and specimen collection will be conducted. Key variables: 1. Face-to-face interviews: Structured questionnaires will be used to collect the participants' socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyles, habitual dietary intake, physical activity, history of chronic diseases, use of supplements and medications, family history, psychological health and cognitive function. 2. Physical examinations: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure tests, handgrip strength, and usual gait speed. 3. Ultrasonography examinations: Ultrasonography examination will be performed to determine carotid artery intima-media thickness and plaque, fatty liver. 4. Electrocardiogram test: Electrocardiogram test is to obtain information about the structure and function of the heart. 5. Specimen collections: Overnight fasting blood sample, early morning first-void urine sample and faeces samples will be collected and stored at −80°C till tests. 6. Laboratory tests: 1. Blood tests: Metabolic syndrome-related indices; nutritional indices; inflammatory markers; sexual hormones; genetic markers. 2. Urinary tests: Flavonoids and flavones, minerals, creatinine and renal function related markers. 3. Fecal test: Gut microbiota and related metabolites. 7. Morbidity and mortality: Relevant data will be also retrieved via local multiple Health information systems. 8. Others: Many other laboratory tests or instrument tests will be developed depended on needs and resources in future.
The mortality effect of kangaroo mother care in stable newborns <2000g is well established but mortality effect in unstable newborns is not conclusively known. This pragmatic clinical trial aims to investigate the mortality and clinical effects of early continuous Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) compared to standard care in mild-moderately unstable neonates <2000g in a resource limited hospital setting.